File Name: national programmes related to child health and welfare .zip
The reasons for not reaching the goals set for Population Control were analyzed.
- Child Welfare Programmes
- National Health Programmes
- Child Health Policies in India: Moving from a Discernible Past to a Promising Future
- Child Health
Child Welfare Programmes
Children up to 14 y of age comprise almost one-third Protecting the health of this largest demographic group requires sound policies and programmes as these children are the future work force and intellectual powerhouse of our country. They will be the flagbearers of sustainable development in India. India has traversed an eventful journey of evolution and implementation of child health care policies and programmes since independence. The vision and focus of these programmes has changed over the years, as understanding of child health grew.
India was the first country in the world to roll out a National Family Planning Programme in the year with the aim of lowering the fertility rate and controlling the growth of population.
Health of infants and newborns formed a relatively minor component of this programme. Later, the Government of India came up with the National Policy for Children in to prioritise child health, nutrition, orphan and destitute children and children with disabilities and to implement laws for the same [ 2 ]. In , the family planning program transitioned into Family Welfare Programme. Maternal and child health care became an integral part of this programme with the recognition that reduction in infant and child mortality is directly proportional to reduction in birth rate [ 3 ].
With an increased thrust on the health of children, the Expanded Programme on Immunisation EPI was launched in the year to provide vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles and tuberculosis [ 4 ]. This initially was launched in a phased manner and became operational in all districts by the year —90 [ 5 ]. Government also introduced the Reproductive and Child Health RCH Programme Phase I during —98 to fulfil the unmet need for family welfare services in the country, especially among the poor and under-served.
It was integrated with CSSM in [ 7 ]. IMNCI consolidated preventive and curative elements to improve the skills of healthcare staff, overall health systems and family and community health practices [ 8 ]. Its objectives were to improve maternal and child health through a continuum of care and lifecycle approach. Further, it focused on improving linkages between various levels of health care systems and strengthening referral systems.
This was later subsumed in National Health Mission in , along with the proposed National Urban Health Mission, to provide a remarkable increase in coverage and quality of health care for mothers and children.
Under National Health Mission NHM the provision of health care to children particularly in rural areas is given priority attention [ 9 ]. The impact of these concerted efforts was clearly visible on the under 5 mortality rate which came down from per live births in to 39 in [ 10 ]. Currently, there are various interventions being implemented to improve the health of children. Undernutrition of children has been a major challenge to child survival, growth and cognitive development.
The Integrated Child Development Scheme ICDS , launched in , has addressed the nutrition and education needs of pre-school children and has evolved over time to cover the 0—6 y age range. Poshan Abhiyan, the recently launched nutrition mission, aims to improve the nutritional status of children in that age range, adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women [ 11 ].
While the thrust to eliminate undernutrition is essential, the rising threat of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents needs to be addressed through programmes promoting healthy nutrition and physical activity. Otherwise, the danger of early onset of non-communicable diseases looms large [ 12 ].
A life course approach to health and nutrition must become a feature of our policy and programme response to the health transition that is underway. This special issue brings together many scholarly articles on child health, tracing the adversities and accomplishments that marked the journey of the last 50 y. Even as a strong case is made for discontinuation of the High Dose Vitamin A distribution in India, strategies for the prevention and control of Vitamin A deficiency are analysed and emphasised as an urgent need [ 15 ].
Even as this programme brings attention to adolescent health, the problem of anemia among children and adolescents poses challenges which are identified and addressed in another review [ 19 ]. An article on interventions for prevention and control of epidemic of vitamin D deficiency is also included [ 20 ].
Together, these articles capture the experiences, achievements and the unmet gaps in the national programmes for child health and nutrition. Distilling the lessons gathered over the past half century, they light up the path we must follow in the next decade to reach the SDGs by Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Census Data ; Accessed 10 April Jagannadham V. National policy for children. Indian J Publ Admin. Child Health Programme in India; Expanded programme on immunization.
World Health Stat Q. Ministry of Health Family and Welfare. Universal Immunisation Programme. National Health Portal of India; Ghosh S. Child survival and safe motherhood -the hard road ahead. Paruthi R, Dutta PK. Reproductive and child health programme. Indian J Public Health. World Health Organization.
WHO division of child health and development. Integrated management of childhood illness: conclusions. Bull World Health Organ. Google Scholar. National Health Mission; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. GBD Foresight. National Portal of India; Obesity and overweight. World Health Fact Sheet; Aggarwal P, Kakkar R.
National nutrition strategy: the needed timely modification to make integrated child development scheme more effective. Indian J Pediatr. Ramachandran P. School mid-day meal programme in India: past, present, and future.
Does India need a universal high-dose vitamin A supplementation program? Aneja S. Integrated management of newborn and childhood illness IMNCI strategy and its implementation in real life situation.
National immunization programme — mission indradhanush programme: newer approaches and interventions. Ramji S, Jain A. Prevention and control of anemia amongst children and adolescents: theory and practice in India. Marwaha RK, Dabas A. Interventions for prevention and control of epidemic of vitamin D deficiency.
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Received : 10 April Accepted : 11 April Published : 29 April Issue Date : 01 June Search SpringerLink Search. Download PDF. References 1. View author publications. Ethics declarations Conflict of Interest None. Rights and permissions Reprints and Permissions. About this article.
Cite this article Mathur, M.
National Health Programmes
Children up to 14 y of age comprise almost one-third Protecting the health of this largest demographic group requires sound policies and programmes as these children are the future work force and intellectual powerhouse of our country. They will be the flagbearers of sustainable development in India. India has traversed an eventful journey of evolution and implementation of child health care policies and programmes since independence. The vision and focus of these programmes has changed over the years, as understanding of child health grew. India was the first country in the world to roll out a National Family Planning Programme in the year with the aim of lowering the fertility rate and controlling the growth of population. Health of infants and newborns formed a relatively minor component of this programme.
India's population, as per stood at 1. The infant mortality in Kerala is 6 per thousand live births,  but in Uttar Pradesh it is The life expectancy at birth has increased from For the same period, the life expectancy for females is The infant mortality rate has declined from 74 per 1, live births in to 37 per 1, live births in
Child Health Policies in India: Moving from a Discernible Past to a Promising Future
Improving the health status of the population and enhancing the related quality of life through:. Creating environments supportive to health, work and education. Reducing inequalities in health and access to health services. Promoting healthy diet and improving food quality. Reducing tobacco smoking.
This paper aims to answer the questions: What is the public health model and how does it apply to the Australian child welfare and child protection system? There are many theoretical and conceptual frameworks that inform our thinking about the structure of the service system and the delivery of services to vulnerable families. Prominent approaches include: the developmental—ecological framework, situational crime prevention models, attachment theory, trauma theory, child development, gender theory, victimology, developmental—psychopathology, responsive regulation, community development, the public health model, and models of therapeutic engagement. Theories and models help us to frame our thinking and interpret findings when investigating the nature and prevalence of a problem, its aetiology, or its consequences. Theories and models also help us to plan and review the structure of the service system in responding to problems. In this sheet, the public health model is applied to the Australian child welfare and child protection system to explore how the service system responds to child abuse and neglect.
Check out our interactive infographic to see progress toward the Maternal Infant and Child Health objectives and other Healthy People topic areas. Improving the well-being of mothers, infants, and children is an important public health goal for the United States. Their well-being determines the health of the next generation and can help predict future public health challenges for families, communities, and the health care system. The objectives of the Maternal, Infant, and Child Health topic area address a wide range of conditions, health behaviors, and health systems indicators that affect the health, wellness, and quality of life of women, children, and families. Pregnancy can provide an opportunity to identify existing health risks in women and to prevent future health problems for women and their children. These health risks may include:. The risk of maternal and infant mortality and pregnancy-related complications can be reduced by increasing access to quality preconception before pregnancy , prenatal during pregnancy , and interconception between pregnancies care.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. S ince , a great deal of attention has been focused on policy, practice, and program initiatives aimed at improving both the delivery of child welfare services and the outcomes for children who come in contact with the public child welfare system—the system that implements, funds, or arranges for many of the programs and services provided when child abuse and neglect is suspected or has actually occurred.
Screen Reader Access. In India, an estimated 26 millions of children are born every year. The child health programme under the National Health Mission NHM comprehensively integrates interventions that improve child survival and addresses factors contributing to infant and under-five mortality. It is now well recognised that child survival cannot be addressed in isolation as it is intricately linked to the health of the mother, which is further determined by her health and development as an adolescent.
Смотри. Стратмор пришел вчера с самого утра, и с тех пор его лифт не сдвинулся с места. Не видно, чтобы он пользовался электронной картой у главного входа.
У дверцы лифта есть код, - злорадно сказала Сьюзан. - Ну и проблема! - засмеялся Хейл. - Думаю, коммандер мне его откроет.
Приторно-сладкий перезвон каминных часов возвестил об окончании еще одного дня его унылого существования. Какого черта! - подумал. - Что я делаю здесь в пять вечера в субботу. - Чед? - В дверях его кабинета возникла Мидж Милкен, эксперт внутренней безопасности Фонтейна.
Дэвид Беккер повесил трубку. Альфонсо XIII. Он усмехнулся.
С рыжими волосами. Я тоже хочу. На завтрашний день, пожалуйста. - Ваш брат Клаус приходил к нам? - Женщина вдруг оживилась, словно говорила со старым знакомым.
Обычная проверка кандидата. - Ну и ну… - Беккер с трудом сдержал улыбку. - И что же ты ответила.