File Name: stars and constellations names and their meanings .zip
Since time immemorial, humankind has been gazing up at the skies in wonder.
All About Stars
A constellation is an area on the celestial sphere in which a group of visible stars forms a perceived outline or pattern, typically representing an animal, mythological person or creature, or an inanimate object. The origins of the earliest constellations likely go back to prehistory. People used them to relate stories of their beliefs, experiences, creation , or mythology.
Different cultures and countries adopted their own constellations, some of which lasted into the early 20th century before today's constellations were internationally recognized. The recognition of constellations has changed significantly over time. Many changed in size or shape. Some became popular, only to drop into obscurity. Some were limited to a single culture or nation.
The 48 traditional Western constellations are Greek. They are given in Aratus ' work Phenomena and Ptolemy 's Almagest , though their origin probably predates these works by several centuries. Constellations in the far southern sky were added from the 15th century until the midth century when European explorers began traveling to the Southern Hemisphere.
Twelve ancient constellations belong to the zodiac straddling the ecliptic , which the Sun , Moon , and planets all traverse. The origins of the zodiac remain historically uncertain; its astrological divisions became prominent c. In , the International Astronomical Union IAU formally accepted the modern list of 88 constellations , and in adopted official constellation boundaries that together cover the entire celestial sphere.
Some astronomical naming systems include the constellation where a given celestial object is found to convey its approximate location in the sky. The Flamsteed designation of a star, for example, consists of a number and the genitive form of the constellation name.
Other star patterns or groups called asterisms are not constellations under the formal definition, but are also used by observers to navigate the night sky. Asterisms may be several stars within a constellation, or they may share stars with more than one constellation. Examples of asterisms include the Pleiades and Hyades within the constellation Taurus and the False Cross split between the southern constellations Carina and Vela , or Venus' Mirror in the constellation of Orion.
These terms generally referred to a recognisable pattern of stars whose appearance is associated with mythological characters or creatures, earthbound animals, or objects. Colloquial usage does not draw a sharp distinction between "constellations" and smaller "asterisms" pattern of stars , yet the modern accepted astronomical constellations employ such a distinction. The southern False Cross asterism includes portions of the constellations Carina and Vela and the Summer Triangle is composed of the brightest stars in the constellations Lyra , Aquila and Cygnus.
A constellation or star , viewed from a particular latitude on Earth, that never sets below the horizon is termed circumpolar. From the North Pole or South Pole, all constellations south or north of the celestial equator are circumpolar. Stars in constellations can appear near each other in the sky, but they usually lie at a variety of distances away from the Earth.
Since each star has its own independent motion, all constellations will change slowly over time. After tens to hundreds of thousands of years, familiar outlines will become unrecognizable.
Both the 88 IAU recognized constellations and those that cultures have recognized throughout history are essentially imagined figures and shapes with only a certain basis in the actually observable sky. Rey , who wrote popular books on astronomy, pointed out the imaginative nature of the constellations and their mythological, artistic basis, and the practical use of identifying them through definite images, according to the classical names they were given.
It has been suggested that the 17,year-old cave paintings in Lascaux Southern France depict star constellations such as Taurus, Orion's Belt, and the Pleiades. However, this view is not yet generally accepted among scientists. Inscribed stones and clay writing tablets from Mesopotamia in modern Iraq dating to BC provide the earliest generally accepted evidence for humankind's identification of constellations.
Mesopotamian constellations appeared later in many of the classical Greek constellations. However, the numerous Sumerian names in these catalogues suggest that they built on older, but otherwise unattested, Sumerian traditions of the Early Bronze Age. The Greeks adopted the Babylonian constellations in the 4th century BC. Twenty Ptolemaic constellations are from the Ancient Near East. Another ten have the same stars but different names.
Biblical scholar E. Bullinger interpreted some of the creatures mentioned in the books of Ezekiel and Revelation as the middle signs of the four-quarters of the Zodiac,   with the Lion as Leo , the Bull as Taurus , the Man representing Aquarius , and the Eagle standing in for Scorpio.
There is only limited information on ancient Greek constellations, with some fragmentary evidence being found in the Works and Days of the Greek poet Hesiod , who mentioned the "heavenly bodies". The original work of Eudoxus is lost, but it survives as a versification by Aratus , dating to the 3rd century BC. The most complete existing works dealing with the mythical origins of the constellations are by the Hellenistic writer termed pseudo-Eratosthenes and an early Roman writer styled pseudo- Hyginus.
The basis of Western astronomy as taught during Late Antiquity and until the Early Modern period is the Almagest by Ptolemy , written in the 2nd century.
In the Ptolemaic Kingdom , native Egyptian tradition of anthropomorphic figures represented the planets, stars, and various constellations. The oldest known depiction of the zodiac showing all the now familiar constellations, along with some original Egyptian constellations, decans , and planets. Ancient China had a long tradition of observing celestial phenomena.
These constellations are some of the most important observations of Chinese sky, attested from the 5th century BC. Parallels to the earliest Babylonian Sumerian star catalogues suggest that the ancient Chinese system did not arise independently. Three schools of classical Chinese astronomy in the Han period are attributed to astronomers of the earlier Warring States period. The constellations of the three schools were conflated into a single system by Chen Zhuo , an astronomer of the 3rd century Three Kingdoms period.
Chen Zhuo's work has been lost, but information on his system of constellations survives in Tang period records, notably by Qutan Xida. The oldest extant Chinese star chart dates to that period and was preserved as part of the Dunhuang Manuscripts.
Native Chinese astronomy flourished during the Song dynasty , and during the Yuan dynasty became increasingly influenced by medieval Islamic astronomy see Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era. A well-known map from the Song period is the Suzhou Astronomical Chart , which was prepared with carvings of stars on the planisphere of the Chinese sky on a stone plate; it is done accurately based on observations, and it shows the supernova of the year of in Taurus.
Influenced by European astronomy during the late Ming dynasty , charts depicted more stars but retained the traditional constellations. Newly observed stars were incorporated as supplementary to old constellations in the southern sky, which did not depict the traditional stars recorded by ancient Chinese astronomers.
Historically, the origins of the constellations of the northern and southern skies are distinctly different. Most northern constellations date to antiquity, with names based mostly on Classical Greek legends. Argo Navis. Some southern constellations had long names that were shortened to more usable forms; e. Musca Australis became simply Musca. Some of the early constellations were never universally adopted. Stars were often grouped into constellations differently by different observers, and the arbitrary constellation boundaries often led to confusion as to which constellation a celestial object belonged.
Before astronomers delineated precise boundaries starting in the 19th century , constellations generally appeared as ill-defined regions of the sky. The star atlas " Uranometria " of Johann Bayer assigned stars to individual constellations and formalized the division by assigning a series of Greek and Latin letters to the stars within each constellation. These are known today as Bayer designations. The knowledge that northern and southern star patterns differed goes back to Classical writers, who describe, for example, the African circumnavigation expedition commissioned by Egyptian Pharaoh Necho II in c.
However, much of this history was lost with the Destruction of the Library of Alexandria. The history of southern constellations is not straightforward. Different groupings and different names were proposed by various observers, some reflecting national traditions or designed to promote various sponsors. Southern constellations were important from the 14th to 16th centuries, when sailors used the stars for celestial navigation.
Italian explorers who recorded new southern constellations include Andrea Corsali , Antonio Pigafetta , and Amerigo Vespucci. Many of the 88 IAU-recognized constellations in this region first appeared on celestial globes developed in the late 16th century by Petrus Plancius , based mainly on observations of the Dutch navigators Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser  and Frederick de Houtman.
Several modern proposals have not survived. The French astronomers Pierre Lemonnier and Joseph Lalande , for example, proposed constellations that were once popular but have since been dropped. A general list of 88 constellations was produced for the International Astronomical Union in In , Henry Norris Russell produced a general list of 88 constellations and some useful abbreviations for them. In , the International Astronomical Union IAU formally accepted 88 modern constellations , with contiguous boundaries  along vertical and horizontal lines of right ascension and declination developed by Eugene Delporte that, together, cover the entire celestial sphere;   this list was finally published in The aim of this system is area-mapping, i.
Equirectangular plot of declination vs right ascension of stars brighter than apparent magnitude 5 on the Hipparcos Catalogue , coded by spectral type and apparent magnitude, relative to the modern constellations and the ecliptic.
The boundaries developed by Delporte used data that originated back to epoch B Gould first made his proposal to designate boundaries for the celestial sphere, a suggestion on which Delporte based his work. The consequence of this early date is that because of the precession of the equinoxes , the borders on a modern star map, such as epoch J , are already somewhat skewed and no longer perfectly vertical or horizontal.
The Great Rift, a series of dark patches in the Milky Way , is more visible and striking in the southern hemisphere than in the northern. It vividly stands out when conditions are otherwise so dark that the Milky Way's central region casts shadows on the ground.
Members of the Inca civilization identified various dark areas or dark nebulae in the Milky Way as animals and associated their appearance with the seasonal rains. The Emu in the sky — a constellation defined by dark clouds rather than by stars. The head of the emu is the Coalsack with the Southern Cross directly above. Scorpius is to the left. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Group of stars forming a pattern on the celestial sphere.
This article is about the star grouping. For other uses, see Constellation disambiguation. See also: Old Babylonian astronomy. See also: Egyptian astronomy and Ancient Greek astronomy.
Further information: Chinese constellations and Chinese astronomy. See also: Constellations created and listed by Dutch explorers and celestial cartographers in the Age of Discovery , Uranometria , Harmonia Macrocosmica , and Former constellations. Main article: IAU designated constellations.
Further information: Great Rift astronomy.
An astronomer explains how they form, why they appear to twinkle, how they got their name, and much more. The following questions were answered by astronomer Dr. The biggest stars are known as "red supergiants. If you plopped Betelgeuse into the middle of our solar system, it would fill it out to roughly the orbit of Jupiter! Red supergiants are about times larger than our sun.
Download a high quality pdf of this article here. Click here to see the project. In modern astronomy, the International Astronomical Union officially recognizes 88 constellations. The ancient Sumerians, Babylonians, and later, the Greeks established most of the northern constellations that we still recognize today. These civilizations interpreted many of the constellations through the lens of mythology and legend. For example, the Aries constellation is associated with the golden ram of Greek mythology.
Constellation names, like the names of stars , come from a variety of sources and each has a different story and meaning behind it. The names of ancient constellations mostly come from Greek and Roman mythology, while most of the constellations created more recently were named after scientific instruments and exotic animals. Constellation names that come from Greek mythology, including the names of the zodiac constellations , are the ones that are best known. These constellations were first catalogued by the Greek astronomer Claudius Ptolemy in the 2nd century CE. Ptolemy did not name these constellations, but simply documented them in his Almagest.
Old constellations' names usually come from Greek mythology, while the star They were named after the animals the explorers encountered on their journeys.
A constellation is a group of stars which make up imaginary outline or pattern in the night sky the celestial sphere. Usually they are said to represent an animal, mythological person or creature in a shape. When seen, the group of stars seem to make a pattern.
Ancient Mayan civilization, flourished from B. In particular, the Dresden Codex contains the most details of such ancient Mayan heritage. Page 24 and those from 46 to 50 of the Dresden Codex describe the Mayan Venus calendar along with the augural descriptions. We note that the calendar in Dresden Codex is Venus-solar calendar.
In this activity, students will learn how ancient people related to constellations and asterisms, then use their imagination to create a star pattern and accompanying story. The instructor can have students draw their designs on paper or make an inflatable planetarium, in which students will poke out their star constellations. Inflatable Planetarium - Creating Stories in the Sky video - available online: www. Large roll of utility tape.
Это не доказательство, - сказал Стратмор. - Но кажется довольно подозрительным. Сьюзан кивнула. - То есть вы хотите сказать, Танкадо не волновало, что кто-то начнет разыскивать Северную Дакоту, потому что его имя и адрес защищены компанией ARA. - Верно. Сьюзан на секунду задумалась. - ARA обслуживает в основном американских клиентов.
Это значит - Кто будет охранять охранников?. - Не понимаю. Кто будет охранять охранников. - Вот. Если мы - охранники общества, то кто будет следить за нами, чтобы мы не стали угрозой обществу.
И проклинала. Как я могла не выключить монитор. Сьюзан понимала: как только Хейл заподозрит, что она искала что-то в его компьютере, то сразу же поймет, что подлинное лицо Северной Дакоты раскрыто. И пойдет на все, лишь бы эта информация не вышла из стен Третьего узла. А что, подумала Сьюзан, если броситься мимо него и побежать к двери.
Девушка, заметно смутившись, посмотрела на свою руку. - Это нацарапал мой дружок… ужасно глупо, правда. Беккер не мог выдавить ни слова.
Он, как обычно, записал имена жертв. Контакты на кончиках пальцев замкнулись, и на линзах очков, подобно бестелесным духам, замелькали буквы. ОБЪЕКТ: РОСИО ЕВА ГРАНАДА - ЛИКВИДИРОВАНА ОБЪЕКТ: ГАНС ХУБЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Тремя этажами ниже Дэвид Беккер заплатил по счету и со стаканом в руке направился через холл на открытую террасу гостиницы.
Но не искалеченная рука привлекла внимание Беккера. Он увидел кое-что другое. И повернулся к офицеру.
Беккер встал и потянулся. Открыв полку над головой, он вспомнил, что багажа у него. Времени на сборы ему не дали, да какая разница: ему же обещали, что путешествие будет недолгим - туда и обратно. Двигатели снизили обороты, и самолет с залитого солнцем летного поля въехал в пустой ангар напротив главного терминала.
Беккер понимал, что через несколько секунд его преследователь побежит назад и с верхних ступеней сразу же увидит вцепившиеся в карниз пальцы. Он зажмурился и начал подтягиваться, понимая, что только чудо спасет его от гибели. Пальцы совсем онемели. Беккер посмотрел вниз, на свои ноги. До апельсиновых деревьев не меньше ста метров.
Нестерпимая боль пронзила плечо, сдавила грудь и, подобно миллиону осколков, вонзилась в мозг.
Нужно было думать о долге - о стране и о чести. Стратмор полагал, что у него еще есть время. Он мог отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ, мог, используя кольцо, спасти драгоценную базу данных. Да, подумал он, время еще .
ГЛАВА 127 Собравшиеся на подиуме тотчас замолчали, словно наблюдая за солнечным затмением или извержением вулкана - событиями, над которыми у них не было ни малейшей власти. Время, казалось, замедлило свой бег. - Мы терпим бедствие! - крикнул техник. - Все линии устремились к центру.