File Name: superbugs kill indians babies and pose an overseas threat answer key .zip
- Abstracts from the 5th International Conference on Prevention & Infection Control (ICPIC 2019)
- Genetically modified food controversies
- Antibacterial Drug Discovery to Combat MDR
- Infectious Disease Threats in the Twenty-First Century: Strengthening the Global Response
Dangerous, antibiotic resistant bacteria have been observed with increasing frequency over the past several decades. In this review the factors that have been linked to this phenomenon are addressed.
This book compiles the latest information in the field of antibacterial discovery, especially with regard to the looming threat of multi-drug resistance. The respective chapters highlight the discovery of new antibacterial and anti-infective compounds derived from microbes, plants, and other natural sources. The potential applications of nanotechnology to the fields of antibacterial discovery and drug delivery are also discussed, and one section of the book is dedicated to the use of computational tools and metagenomics in antibiotic drug discovery. Techniques for efficient drug delivery are also covered. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the progress made in both antibacterial discovery and delivery, making it a valuable resource for academic researchers, as well as those working in the pharmaceutical industry.
Abstracts from the 5th International Conference on Prevention & Infection Control (ICPIC 2019)
Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops , and other uses of genetic engineering in food production. The disputes involve consumers , farmers , biotechnology companies , governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations, and scientists. The key areas of controversy related to genetically modified food GM food or GMO food are whether such food should be labeled, the role of government regulators, the objectivity of scientific research and publication, the effect of genetically modified crops on health and the environment, the effect on pesticide resistance , the impact of such crops for farmers, and the role of the crops in feeding the world population.
In addition, products derived from GMO organisms play a role in the production of ethanol fuels and pharmaceuticals. Specific concerns include mixing of genetically modified and non-genetically modified products in the food supply,  effects of GMOs on the environment,   the rigor of the regulatory process,   and consolidation of control of the food supply in companies that make and sell GMOs.
The safety assessment of genetically engineered food products by regulatory bodies starts with an evaluation of whether or not the food is substantially equivalent to non-genetically engineered counterparts that are already deemed fit for human consumption.
There is a scientific consensus     that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food,      but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction. Consumer concerns about food quality first became prominent long before the advent of GM foods in the s.
Some consumers, including many in the US, came to see GM food as "unnatural", with various negative associations and fears a reverse halo effect.
Specific perceptions include a view of genetic engineering as meddling with naturally evolved biological processes, and one that science has limitations on its comprehension of potential negative ramifications. Surveys indicate widespread concern among consumers that eating genetically modified food is harmful,    that biotechnology is risky, that more information is needed and that consumers need control over whether to take such risks.
Smith , Dr. Religious groups have raised concerns over whether genetically modified food will remain kosher or halal. In , no such foods had been designated as unacceptable by Orthodox rabbis or Muslim leaders. Food writer Michael Pollan does not oppose eating genetically modified foods, but supports mandatory labeling of GM foods and has criticized the intensive farming enabled by certain GM crops, such as glyphosate -tolerant "Roundup-ready" corn and soybeans.
The idea has since been adopted to varying degrees by companies like Syngenta ,  and is being promoted by organizations such as the New America Foundation. Who benefits from their use? Who decided that they should be developed and how? Why were we not better informed about their use in our food, before their arrival on the market?
Why are we not given an effective choice about whether or not to buy these products? Have potential long-term and irreversible consequences been seriously evaluated, and by whom? Do regulatory authorities have sufficient powers to effectively regulate large companies? Who wishes to develop these products? Can controls imposed by regulatory authorities be applied effectively? Who will be accountable in cases of unforeseen harm? Rather than zero risk, what they demanded was a more realistic assessment of risks by regulatory authorities and GMO producers.
Protests during this period against Calgene 's Flavr Savr GM tomato mistakenly described it as containing fish genes, confusing it with DNA Plant Technology 's fish tomato experimental transgenic organism, which was never commercialized. The " Eurobarometer " survey,  which assesses public attitudes about biotech and the life sciences, found that cisgenics , GM crops made from plants that are crossable by conventional breeding , evokes a smaller reaction than transgenic methods, using genes from species that are taxonomically very different.
In just nine years since identical survey in the level of concern has halved in 28 EU Member States. In May , a group called "Take the Flour Back" led by Gerald Miles protested plans by a group from Rothamsted Experimental Station , based in Harpenden, Hertfordshire, England, to conduct an experimental trial wheat genetically modified to repel aphids. The March Against Monsanto is an international grassroots movement and protest against Monsanto corporation, a producer of genetically modified organism GMOs and Roundup , a glyphosate -based herbicide.
Advocates support mandatory labeling laws for food made from GMOs. The initial march took place on May 25, The number of protesters who took part is uncertain; figures of "hundreds of thousands" and the organizers' estimate of "two million"  were variously cited. Events took place in between  and  cities around the world, mostly in the United States.
Monsanto said that it respected people's rights to express their opinion on the topic, but maintained that its seeds improved agriculture by helping farmers produce more from their land while conserving resources, such as water and energy. In , the ice-minus strain of P. This was followed by the spraying of a crop of potato seedlings. In , Greenpeace paid reparations when its members broke into the premises of an Australian scientific research organization, CSIRO , and destroyed a genetically modified wheat plot.
The sentencing judge accused Greenpeace of cynically using junior members to avoid risking their own freedom. The offenders were given 9-month suspended sentences. On August 8, protesters uprooted an experimental plot of golden rice in the Philippines. In , two documentaries were released which countered the growing anti-GMO sentiment among the public.
These included Food Evolution   and Science Moms. Per the Science Moms director, the film "focuses on providing a science and evidence-based counter-narrative to the pseudoscience -based parenting narrative that has cropped up in recent years". There are various conspiracy theories related to the production and sale of genetically modified crops and genetically modified food that have been identified by some commentators such as Michael Shermer.
A work seeking to explore risk perception over GMOs in Turkey identified a belief among the conservative political and religious figures who were opposed to GMOs that GMOs were "a conspiracy by Jewish Multinational Companies and Israel for world domination. In , environmental groups and protesters delayed the field tests of the genetically modified ice-minus strain of P. In this case, the plaintiff argued both for mandatory labeling on the basis of consumer demand, and that GMO foods should undergo the same testing requirements as food additives because they are "materially changed" and have potentially unidentified health risks.
The federal district court rejected all of those arguments and found that the FDA's determination that GMO's are Generally Recognized as Safe was neither arbitrary nor capricious. The Diamond v. Chakrabarty case was on the question of whether GMOs can be patented.
On 16 June , the Supreme Court, in a 5—4 split decision, held that "A live, human-made micro-organism is patentable subject matter "  under the meaning of U. One of the first incidents occurred in , when Nature published a paper on potential toxic effects of Bt maize on butterflies. The paper produced a public uproar and demonstrations, however by multiple follow-up studies had concluded that "the most common types of Bt maize pollen are not toxic to monarch larvae in concentrations the insects would encounter in the fields" and that they had "brought that particular question to a close".
Concerned scientists began to patrol the scientific literature and react strongly, both publicly and privately, to discredit conclusions they view as flawed in order to prevent unjustified public outcry and regulatory action. Prior to , scientists wishing to conduct research on commercial GM plants or seeds were unable to do so, because of restrictive end-user agreements.
Cornell University's Elson Shields was the spokesperson for one group of scientists who opposed such restrictions. The group submitted a statement to the United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA in protesting that "as a result of restrictive access, no truly independent research can be legally conducted on many critical questions regarding the technology".
A Scientific American editorial quoted a scientist who said that several studies that were initially approved by seed companies were blocked from publication when they returned "unflattering" results. While favoring protection of intellectual property rights , the editors called for the restrictions to be lifted and for the EPA to require, as a condition of approval, that independent researchers have unfettered access to genetically modified products for research.
In December , the American Seed Trade Association agreed to "allow public researchers greater freedom to study the effects of GM food crops". The companies signed blanket agreements permitting such research. This agreement left many scientists optimistic about the future;  other scientists still express concern as to whether this agreement has the ability to "alter what has been a research environment rife with obstruction and suspicion".
A analysis by Diels et al. Of the 43 studies with financial or professional conflicts of interest, 28 studies were compositional studies. According to Marc Brazeau, an association between professional conflict of interest and positive study outcomes can be skewed because companies typically contract with independent researchers to perform follow-up studies only after in-house research uncovers favorable results.
In-house research that uncovers negative or unfavorable results for a novel GMO is generally not further pursued. A review, of 1, papers on genetically modified crops and food published between and found no plausible evidence of dangers from the use of then marketed GM crops. In a review, Zdziarski et al. Most studies were performed years after the approval of the crop for human consumption.
Papers were often imprecise in their descriptions of the histological results and the selection of study endpoints, and lacked necessary details about methods and results. The authors called for the development of better study guidelines for determining the long-term safety of eating GM foods.
A study by the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine concluded that GM foods are safe for human consumption and they could find no conclusive evidence that they harm the environment nor wildlife. They concluded that GM crops had given farmers economic advantages but found no evidence that GM crops had increased yields. They also noted that weed resistance to GM crops could cause major agricultural problems but this could be addressed by better farming procedures.
The leader of the research group, Federico Infascelli, rejected the claim. The research concluded that mother goats fed GM soybean meal secreted fragments of the foreign gene in their milk. In December one of the papers was retracted for "self-plagiarism", although the journal noted that the results remained valid.
Consensus among scientists and regulators pointed to the need for improved testing technologies and protocols. Most conventional agricultural products are the products of genetic manipulation via traditional cross-breeding and hybridization. Governments manage the marketing and release of GM foods on a case-by-case basis. Countries differ in their risk assessments and regulations. Marked differences distinguish the US from Europe.
Crops not intended as foods are generally not reviewed for food safety. Regulators check that GM foods are " substantially equivalent " to their conventional counterparts, to detect any negative unintended consequences. In , Andrew Chesson of the Rowett Research Institute warned that substantial equivalence testing "could be flawed in some cases" and that current safety tests could allow harmful substances to enter the human food supply.
They suggested that GM foods have extensive biological, toxicological and immunological tests and that substantial equivalence should be abandoned. Kuiper examined this process further in , finding that substantial equivalence does not measure absolute risks, but instead identifies differences between new and existing products.
He claimed that characterizing differences is properly a starting point for a safety assessment  and "the concept of substantial equivalence is an adequate tool in order to identify safety issues related to genetically modified products that have a traditional counterpart".
Kuiper noted practical difficulties in applying this standard, including the fact that traditional foods contain many toxic or carcinogenic chemicals and that existing diets were never proven to be safe. This lack of knowledge re conventional food means that modified foods may differ in anti-nutrients and natural toxins that have never been identified in the original plant, possibly allowing harmful changes to be missed.
For example, corn damaged by insects often contains high levels of fumonisins , carcinogenic toxins made by fungi that travel on insects' backs and that grow in the wounds of damaged corn. Studies show that most Bt corn has lower levels of fumonisins than conventional insect-damaged corn.
A survey of publications comparing the intrinsic qualities of modified and conventional crop lines examining genomes , proteomes and metabolomes concluded that GM crops had less impact on gene expression or on protein and metabolite levels than the variability generated by conventional breeding. In a review, Herman Dow AgroSciences and Price FDA, retired argued that transgenesis is less disruptive than traditional breeding techniques because the latter routinely involve more changes mutations, deletions, insertions and rearrangements than the relatively limited changes often single gene in genetic engineering.
The FDA found that all of the transgenic events that they evaluated to be substantially equivalent to their conventional counterparts, as have Japanese regulators for submissions including combined-trait products. This equivalence was confirmed by more than 80 peer-reviewed publications. Hence, the authors argue, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM food crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty.
Genetically modified food controversies
The clock is ticking: in the absence of government support, not being able to work means waste reclaimers don't have money to buy food. One thing that remains unchanged is that we continue to produce massive amounts of waste each day. South Africa generates 59 million tonnes of general waste a year. Yet the country has recycling rates comparable to European countries for some materials. After salvaging the recyclables, the reclaimers haul them great distances, sort and clean them. They sell the materials to small buyback centres, who sell them to larger buyers.
prevention domestically and abroad will help slow these new threats. The first AR by key antibiotic-resistant germs (bacteria and fungi) on.
Antibacterial Drug Discovery to Combat MDR
Metrics details. Introduction: Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis SAP is frequently continued for several days after surgery to prevent surgical site infection SSI. Continuing SAP after the operation may have no advantage compared to immediate discontinuation and unnecessarily expose patients to risks associated with antibiotic use. Objectives: We present an update of the evidence that formed the basis for this recommendation. We excluded studies comparing regimens that also differed with regard to dose and agent used, and studies that did not administer the first dose preoperatively by intravenous infusion.
New opportunities for WASH and health integration. Photo: A mother in Vietnam helps her children wash their hands while wearing face masks. Health and water are inextricably linked. Yet, policies and programs related.
Infectious Disease Threats in the Twenty-First Century: Strengthening the Global Response
Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops , and other uses of genetic engineering in food production. The disputes involve consumers , farmers , biotechnology companies , governmental regulators, non-governmental organizations, and scientists. The key areas of controversy related to genetically modified food GM food or GMO food are whether such food should be labeled, the role of government regulators, the objectivity of scientific research and publication, the effect of genetically modified crops on health and the environment, the effect on pesticide resistance , the impact of such crops for farmers, and the role of the crops in feeding the world population. In addition, products derived from GMO organisms play a role in the production of ethanol fuels and pharmaceuticals. Specific concerns include mixing of genetically modified and non-genetically modified products in the food supply,  effects of GMOs on the environment,   the rigor of the regulatory process,   and consolidation of control of the food supply in companies that make and sell GMOs. The safety assessment of genetically engineered food products by regulatory bodies starts with an evaluation of whether or not the food is substantially equivalent to non-genetically engineered counterparts that are already deemed fit for human consumption. There is a scientific consensus     that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food,      but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction.
Antibiotics are life saving medicines. But these very same medicines can threaten our lives, if used indiscriminately. Already, seven lakh people around the world die due to drug-resistant diseases each year. And if no radical changes are made, these drug-resistant diseases could kill 10 million people a year by It is an online tool aimed at guiding policy-makers and health workers to use antibiotics safely and more effectively. Therefore, rational use of antibiotics is essential in order to minimize antibiotic resistance. AMR is of particular concern in developing nations, including India, where the burden of infectious disease is high and healthcare spending is low.
The world has developed an elaborate global health system as a bulwark against known and unknown infectious disease threats. The system consists of various formal and informal networks of organizations that serve different stakeholders; have varying goals, modalities, resources, and accountability; operate at different regional levels i. The evolving global health system has done much to protect and promote human health. However, the world continues to be confronted by longstanding, emerging, and reemerging infectious disease threats. These threats differ widely in terms of severity and probability. They also have varying consequences for morbidity and mortality, as well as for a complex set of social and economic outcomes. To various degrees, they are also amenable to alternative responses, ranging from clean water provision to regulation to biomedical countermeasures.
The Rise of Antibiotic Resistance
У тебя хорошее чутье, - парировал Стратмор, - но есть кое-что. Я ничего не нашел на Северную Дакоту, поэтому изменил направление поиска. В записи, которую я обнаружил, фигурирует другое имя - N DAKOTA. Сьюзан покачала головой. - Такие перестановки - стандартный прием. Танкадо знал, что вы испробуете различные варианты, пока не наткнетесь на что-нибудь подходящее.
Мы выполняем свою работу. Мы обнаружили статистический сбой и хотим выяснить, в чем. Кроме того, - добавила она, - я хотела бы напомнить Стратмору, что Большой Брат не спускает с него глаз. Пусть хорошенько подумает, прежде чем затевать очередную авантюру с целью спасения мира. - Она подняла телефонную трубку и начала набирать номер.
Беккер растерялся. Очевидно, он ошибался. Девушка обвила его руками. - Это лето было такое ужасное, - говорила она, чуть не плача. - Я вам так признательна. Я так хочу выбраться отсюда. Беккер легонько обнял .
И снова Стратмор нетерпеливым взмахом руки заставил ее замолчать. Сьюзан в испуге взглянула на Хейла. Он стоял с безучастным видом, словно происходящее его никак не касалось. И это понятно, - подумала .
Он постоял в нерешительности, раздумывая, не следует ли поставить в известность начальника лаборатории безопасности. Да будь они прокляты, эти криптографы. Ничего не понимают в системах безопасности. Присяга, которую Чатрукьян принимал, поступая на службу в АНБ, стала непроизвольно прокручиваться в его голове.
- Где же он, черт возьми. Глядя на оживающий монитор, он подумал, известно ли Стратмору, что в лаборатории систем безопасности нет ни души. Подходя к шифровалке, он успел заметить, что шторы кабинета шефа задернуты. Это означало, что тот находится на рабочем месте.
- Что происходит. Беккер не удостоил его ответом. - На самом деле я его не продала, - сказала Росио. - Хотела это сделать, но она совсем еще ребенок, да и денег у нее не .
Я полагаю, что у вашей подруги есть и фамилия.
Она выглядела как первокурсница, попавшая под дождь, а он был похож на студента последнего курса, одолжившего ей свою куртку. Впервые за многие годы коммандер почувствовал себя молодым. Его мечта была близка к осуществлению.
Причина такой секретности проста: правительство не может допустить массовой истерии. Никто не знает, как поведет себя общество, узнав, что группы фундаменталистов дважды за прошлый год угрожали ядерным объектам, расположенным на территории США. Ядерное нападение было, однако, не единственной угрозой. Только в прошлом месяце благодаря ТРАНСТЕКСТУ удалось предотвратить одну из самых изощренных террористических акций, с которыми приходилось сталкиваться агентству. Некая антиправительственная организация разработала план под кодовым названием Шервудский лес.
Я не хотел, чтобы ты узнала об этом. Я был уверен, что он тебе все рассказал. Сьюзан ощутила угрызения совести. - Я тоже хватила через край. Извините .
Вроде бы на нижней ступеньке никого. Может, ему просто показалось. Какая разница, Стратмор никогда не решится выстрелить, пока он прикрыт Сьюзан.
Конечно. Он работает уже шестнадцать часов, если не ошибаюсь.