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Islamic world , also called Islamdom , the complex of societies and cultures in which Muslims and their faith have been prevalent and socially dominant.
Islamic History and Civilization
Islamic world , also called Islamdom , the complex of societies and cultures in which Muslims and their faith have been prevalent and socially dominant. Adherence to Islam is a global phenomenon: Muslims predominate in some 30 to 40 countries, from the Atlantic eastward to the Pacific and along a belt that stretches across northern Africa into Central Asia and south to the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent.
Arabs account for fewer than one-fifth of all Muslims, more than half of whom live east of Karachi , Pakistan. Despite the absence of large-scale Islamic political entities, the Islamic faith continues to expand, by some estimates faster than any other major religion. The Muslim religion and the life of the Prophet Muhammad are treated specifically in the article Islam. The literature, music, dance, and visual arts of Muslim peoples are treated in the article Islamic arts.
Islam is also discussed in articles on individual countries or on regions in which the religion is a factor, such as Egypt , Iran , Arabia , and North Africa.
In general, events referred to in this article are dated according to the Gregorian calendar , and eras are designated bce before the Common Era or Christian Era and ce Common Era or Christian Era , terms which are equivalent to bc before Christ and ad Latin: anno Domini. In some cases the Muslim reckoning of the Islamic era is used, indicated by ah Latin: anno Hegirae. In what follows, the terms Islamic world and Islamdom are used interchangeably.
The term Islamicate refers to the social and cultural complex that is historically associated with Islam and the Muslims, including the function and participation of non-Islamic and non-Muslim individuals and groups within that complex. The potential for Muslim empire building was established with the rise of the earliest civilizations in western Asia. It was facilitated by the expansion of trade from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean and by the political changes thus effected.
The Muslims were heirs to the ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians, Hebrews, even the Greeks and Indians; the societies they created bridged time and space, from ancient to modern and from east to west. The factors that surrounded and directed their accomplishment had begun to coalesce long before, with the emergence of agrarian-based citied societies in western Asia in the 4th millennium bce. The rise of complex agrarian-based societies, such as Sumer , out of a subsistence agricultural and pastoralist environment , involved the founding of cities, the extension of citied power over surrounding villages, and the interaction of both with pastoralists.
This type of social organization offered new possibilities. Agricultural production and intercity trading, particularly in luxury goods, increased.
Some individuals were able to take advantage of the manual labour of others to amass enough wealth to patronize a wide range of arts and crafts; of these, a few were able to establish territorial monarchies and foster religious institutions with wider appeal. Gradually the familiar troika of court, temple, and market emerged. The new ruling groups cultivated skills for administering and integrating non-kin-related groups.
They benefited from the increased use of writing and, in many cases, from the adoption of a single writing system, such as the cuneiform , for administrative use. New institutions, such as coinage, territorial deities, royal priesthoods, and standing armies, further enhanced their power. In such town-and-country complexes the pace of change quickened enough so that a well-placed individual might see the effects of his actions in his own lifetime and be stimulated to self-criticism and moral reflection of an unprecedented sort.
The religion of these new social entities reflected and supported the new social environments. Unlike the religions of small groups, the religions of complex societies focused on deities, such as Marduk , Isis , or Mithra , whose appeal was not limited to one small area or group and whose powers were much less fragmented.
The relationship of earthly existence to the afterlife became more problematic, as evidenced by the elaborate death rites of pharaonic Egypt. Individual religious action began to compete with communal worship and ritual; sometimes it promised spiritual transformation and transcendence of a new sort, as illustrated in the pan-Mediterranean mystery religions.
Yet large-scale organization had introduced social and economic injustices that rulers and religions could address but not resolve.
To many, an absolute ruler uniting a plurality of ethnic, religious, and interest groups offered the best hope of justice. Islamic world Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Marilyn R. See Article History.
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Islamic world , also called Islamdom , the complex of societies and cultures in which Muslims and their faith have been prevalent and socially dominant. Adherence to Islam is a global phenomenon: Muslims predominate in some 30 to 40 countries, from the Atlantic eastward to the Pacific and along a belt that stretches across northern Africa into Central Asia and south to the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent. Arabs account for fewer than one-fifth of all Muslims, more than half of whom live east of Karachi , Pakistan. Despite the absence of large-scale Islamic political entities, the Islamic faith continues to expand, by some estimates faster than any other major religion. The Muslim religion and the life of the Prophet Muhammad are treated specifically in the article Islam. The literature, music, dance, and visual arts of Muslim peoples are treated in the article Islamic arts. Islam is also discussed in articles on individual countries or on regions in which the religion is a factor, such as Egypt , Iran , Arabia , and North Africa.
Islamic studies. Islamic history is events or events that really happened in the past that are entirely related to the religion of Islam. Islam is too broad in scope, so.
Islamic History and Civilization
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Access options available:. By Seyyed Hossein Nasr. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, Nasr states that the common theme in the trilogy "is the universalist perspective and respect for other religions" p. In addition, Nasr clarifies that his approach, as with all of his Islamic writings, is to write from an Islamic perspective, which he terms "traditional Islam" p. Nasr stands opposed to either the secular modernist or fundamentalist perspectives, both of which he regards as forms of extremism.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic and cultural developments of Islamic civilization. Most historians  accept that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE. Muslims regard Islam as a return to the original faith of the prophets , such as Jesus , Solomon , David , Moses , Abraham , Noah and Adam , with the submission islam to the will of God. According to tradition, in CE , the Islamic Prophet Muhammad began receiving what Muslims consider to be divine revelations, calling for submission to the one God, the expectation of the imminent Last Judgement, and caring for the poor and needy. With Muhammad's death in , disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community during the Rashidun Caliphate. By the 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east.
Но ведь для обычных пользователей они все не поддаются взлому. - Верно… - Стратмор задумался. - На какое-то время. - Что это. Стратмор вздохнул: - Двадцать лет назад никто не мог себе представить, что мы научимся взламывать ключи объемом в двенадцать бит.
- Единственное различие - их атомный вес. Это и есть ключ.
Никакой Северной Дакоты нет и в помине. Энсей Танкадо - единственный исполнитель в этом шоу. Единственный исполнитель. Сьюзан пронзила ужасная мысль.
Сьюзан это позабавило. Стратмор был блестящими программистом-криптографом, но его диапазон был ограничен работой с алгоритмами и тонкости этой не столь уж изощренной и устаревшей технологии программирования часто от него ускользали. К тому же Сьюзан написала свой маячок на новом гибридном языке, именуемом LIMBO, поэтому не приходилось удивляться, что Стратмор с ним не справился.