Difference Between Npn And Pnp Transistor Pdf

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The arrangement of the three terminals affects the current and the amplification of the transistor. The behavior of Bipolar junction transistors is also very different for each circuit configuration. The three different circuit configurations produce different circuit characteristics with regards to input impedance, output impedance and gain. These characteristics affect whether the transistor exhibits voltage gain, current gain or power gain. One of the primary operations of a bipolar junction transistor is to amplify the signal of the current.

Bipolar Junction Transistor

Both p-n- p and the n- p-n transistors are the basic transistors which come under the category of bipolar junction transistors. These are used in the various amplifications circuits and the modulating circuits. NPN and PNP transistors are bipolar junction transistors, and it is a basic electrical and electronic component which is used to build many electrical and electronic projects. The operation of these transistors involves both electrons and holes. In PNP transistors, majority charge carriers are holes, whereas in NPN transistors, electrons are the majority charge carriers.

The formation of these transistors is based on the diodes with the junction p-n. As in the n-p-n transistors n-type s are in majority therefore there includes excess amount of electrons as the charge carriers.

In p-n-p transistors there are two p-types in it resulting in the majority charge carriers as holes. In this type of transistor, the current flows from the collector C to the emitter E. In this transistor, the current flows from the emitter E to the collector C. The PNP transistor is a bipolar junction transistor; In a PNP transistor, the first letter P indicates the polarity of the voltage required for the emitter; the second letter N indicates the polarity of the base.

In this type of transistor, the majority charge carriers are holes. Basically, this transistor works the same as the NPN transistor. The materials which are used to construct the emitter, base and collector terminals in the PNP transistor are different from those used in the NPN transistor.

The PNP transistor bias setup is shown in the below figure. The base-collector terminals of the PNP transistor are always reversed biased, then the negative voltage must be used for the collector.

Therefore, the base terminal of the PNP transistor must be negative with respect to the emitter terminal, and the collector must be negative than the base. The PNP transistor configuration is shown below. The characteristics of both PNP and NPN transistors are similar except that the biasing of the voltage and current directions are reversed for any one of the possible three configurations such as a common base CB , common emitter CE and common collector CC.

The voltage between the base and emitter terminal VBE is negative at the base terminal and positive at the emitter terminal because for a PNP transistor, the base terminal always biased negative with respect to the emitter. Also, the emitter voltage is positive with respect to the collector VCE.

The voltage sources are connected to a PNP transistor, which is shown in the figure. The emitter is connected to the Vcc with the RL, this resistor limits the max current flowing through the device, which is connected to the collector terminal. The base voltage VB is connected to the base resistor RB, which is biased negative with respect to the emitter. To cause the base current to flow during a PNP transistor, the base terminal must be more negative than the emitter terminal by approx.

The fundamental difference between a PNP and a PN transistor is the proper biasing of the transistor junctions; the current directions and the voltage polarities are always opposite to each other. The p-n-p transistors are formed with n-type present in between the p-types. The majority of the carriers those are responsible for the generation of the current are in this transistor are holes. The working operation is similar to that of n-p-n. But the applications of the voltages or currents in terms of polarity are different.

The NPN transistor is a bipolar junction transistor, In an NPN transistor, the first letter N indicates a negatively charged layer of material and a P indicates a positively charged layer. These transistors have a positive layer, which is located in-between two negative layers. NPN transistors are generally used in circuits for switching, amplifying the electrical signals that pass through them.

These transistors comprise three terminals namely, base, collector and emitter and these terminals connect the transistor to the circuit board. When the current flows through the NPN transistor, the transistor base terminal receives the electrical signal, the collector makes a stronger electric current than the one passing through the base, and the emitter passes this stronger current on to the rest of the circuit.

In this transistor, the current flows through the collector terminal to the emitter. Generally, this transistor is used because it is so easy to produce. For an NPN transistor to work properly, it needs to be formed from a semiconductor material, which carries some electric current, but not the maximum amount as very conductive materials like metal. The application of an NPN transistor is on a computer circuit board.

Computers need all their information to be translated into binary code, and this process is accomplished through a plethora of small switches flipping on and off on the computers circuit boards.

NPN transistors can be used for these switches. A powerful electric signal turns the switch on, whereas a lack of a signal turns the switch off. The construction of an NPN transistor is shown below. The voltage at the base terminal is positive and negative at the emitter terminal because of an NPN transistor.

The base terminal is always positive with respect to the emitter terminal, and also collector supply voltage is positive with respect to the emitter terminal. This load resistor limits the current flowing through the maximum base current. In this transistor, the movement of electrons through the base terminal that constitutes transistor action. The main feature of the transistor action is the link between the input and output circuits.

Because, the transistor amplifying properties come from the consequent control that the base employs upon the collector to emitter current. The transistor is a current operated device. When the transistor is switched on, the large current IC flows between the collector and emitter within the transistor.

However, this only happens when a small biasing current Ib flows through the base terminal of the transistor. The value of beta can be large up to for standard transistors, and it is this ratio between Ic and Ib, which makes the transistor a useful amplifier.

When this transistor is used in an active region, then Ib provides the input and Ic provides the output. Beta has no units as it is a ratio. As the emitter current Ie is the sum of a small base current and large collector current, the value of the alpha is very close to unity, and for a typical low power signal transistor this value ranges from about 0.

Bipolar Junction transistors are three terminal device and these are made of doped materials, often used in amplifying and switching applications. When the pair of diodes joined then it forms a sandwich that places a type of semiconductor in between the same two types. Therefore, it permits a large amount of current and operates very fast. And also, the making of this transistor is easy from silicon. This is all about difference between NPN and PNP transistors which are used to build many electrical and electronic projects.

Furthermore, any queries regarding this topic or electrical and electronics projects you can give your feedback by commenting in the comment section below. In this the majority of n-types are present.

In this the majority of p-type materials are present. The majority of the concentrations of the carriers are electrons. The majority of the concentrations of the carriers in this type of transistors are holes. In this if the terminal base is supplied with the increased amounts of current then the transistor gets switch to ON mode.

In this case for the low values of the currents the transistor is ON. Otherwise for high values of currents transistors it is OFF. In the n-p-n transistor the flow of current is evident from the collector to the emitter terminals. In the p-n-p transistor the flow of current can be seen from the terminals of the emitter to the collector. In this transistor the arrow is pointing out.

In this transistor the indication of arrow is always pointing in. The arrows in the transistor s both n-p-n and p-n-p shows the main differences between the transistors. The arrow in n-p-n is pointed towards the emitter whereas for p-n-p the arrow is in the reverse direction. In both the cases the arrow indicates the direction of the flow of current. Hence the construction of n-p-n and the p-n-p is simple. The operating will be same but its polarities of biasing differ.

Now after discussing regarding the basics of n-p-n and the p-n-p can you tell which one is preferred during amplification and why?

Your email address will not be published. Symbol of N-P-N Transistor. Symbol of P-N-P Transistor. Concept are very clear after getting the information provide by the site. Thanks a lot. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.

Pnp transistor image

One of the major difference between the NPN and PNP transistor is that in the NPN transistor the current flow between collector to emitter when the positive supply is given to the base, whereas in PNP transistor the charge carrier flows from the emitter to collector when negative supply is given to the base. It is the current controlling devices and mainly used for switching and amplifying the signal. Mostly, the NPN transistor is used in the circuit because in NPN transistor the conduction current is mainly by electrons while in the PNP transistor the conduction current is because of the holes. As the electrons are more mobile the NPN has high conduction. The NPN and PNP transistor, both are made up of different material due to which the current develops in them also differs.

By StudentsHeart Team. On August 4, In Transistor. In PNP, arrow points inside. This was the main difference between NPN and PNP transistor, in order to understand the physical and internal differences of both types of transistor we have to see their Symbols, Construction, and Operation. Here you can see that an NPN and PNP transistor has three terminals knows as Emitter, Base, and Collector the only difference in symbols of both transistor is the direction of an arrow. Read More: What is the Duty Cycle?

These transistors can be used as amplifiers, switches and oscillators. Except, FETs have only one sort of charge carrier. In NPN transistor, the flow of current runs from the collector terminal to the emitter terminal. A PNP transistor switches ON, when there is no flow of current at the base terminal of the transistor. In PNP transistor, the flow of current runs from the emitter terminal to the collector terminal. In this kind of transistor, the majority charge carriers are holes. Mainly, this transistor works as the same as the NPN transistor.


a positive voltage is given to the collector terminal to produce a current flow from the collector to the emitter.


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Another crucial difference between NPN and PNP transistor is the direction of flow of current, the current in NPN transistor flows from collector to emitter , on the contrary, the current in PNP transistor flows from emitter to collector. The emitter terminal of NPN transistor is connected to negative terminal of the battery while the emitter terminal of PNP transistor is connected to the positive terminal of the battery. NPN transistor is formed by sandwiching P-layer of the semiconductor between two layers of N-type semiconductor. The majority charge carriers in NPN transistor are electrons. In this emitter junction is connected to the negative terminal of the battery while the base of the transistor is connected to the positive terminal of the battery.

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As example, the amplifier PNP silicon bipolar transistor BC can work with collector currents up to mA maximum ratings and up to 45V.. In some applications this transistor can be used as switch for higher currents, e. Digital Transistor PNP. Darlington PNP Transistors. Is this transistor in a TO3 case? See more ideas about Transistors, Electronics components, Bipolar junction transistor.

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Difference between NPN and PNP Transistor

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Difference Between NPN and PNP Transistor

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