Difference Between Nation And State Pdf

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A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. Westphalian sovereignty is the concept of nation-state sovereignty based on territoriality and the absence of a role for external agents in domestic structures.

While the terms country, state, sovereign state, nation, and nation-state are often used interchangeably, there is a difference.

Nigeria and the Nation-State

The concept of a nation-state is notoriously difficult to define. The most obvious deviation from this largely ideal model is the presence of minorities, especially ethnic minorities, which ethnic and cultural nationalists exclude from the majority nation.

The most illustrative historical examples of groups that have been specifically singled out as outsiders are the Roma and Jews in Europe. In legal terms, many nation-states today accept specific minorities as being part of the nation, which generally implies that members of minorities are citizens of a given nation-state and enjoy the same rights and liberties as members of the majority nation.

However, nationalists and, consequently, symbolic narratives of the origins and history of nation-states often continue to exclude minorities from the nation-state and the nation. According to a wider working definition, a nation-state is a type of state that conjoins the political entity of a state to the cultural entity of a nation, from which it aims to derive its political legitimacy to rule and potentially its status as a sovereign state if one accepts the declarative theory of statehood as opposed to the constitutive theory.

A state is specifically a political and geopolitical entity, while a nation is a cultural and ethnic one. The concept of a nation-state can be compared and contrasted with that of the multinational state, city-state, empire, confederation, and other state formations with which it may overlap. The key distinction is the identification of a people with a polity in the nation-state. The origins and early history of nation-states are disputed. Two major theoretical questions have been debated.

For others, the nation existed first, then nationalist movements arose for sovereignty, and the nation-state was created to meet that demand. Most theories see the nation-state as a modern European phenomenon, facilitated by developments such as state-mandated education, mass literacy, and mass media including print.

However, others look for the roots of nation-states in ancient times. The Westphalian system did not create the nation-state, but the nation-state meets the criteria for its component states. This map of Europe, outlining borders in , demonstrates that still at the beginning of the 19th century, Europe was divided mostly into empires, kingdoms, and confederations. Hardly any of the entities on the map would meet the criteria of the nation-state. Nation-states have their own characteristics that today may be taken-for-granted factors shaping a modern state, but that all developed in contrast to pre-national states.

Nation-states use the state as an instrument of national unity, in economic, social, and cultural life. After the 19th-century triumph of the nation-state in Europe, regional identity was usually subordinate to national identity. In many cases, the regional administration was also subordinate to central national government.

This process has been partially reversed from the s onward, with the introduction of various forms of regional autonomy in formerly centralized states e. The most obvious impact of the nation-state, as compared to its non-national predecessors, is the creation of a uniform national culture through state policy. The model of the nation-state implies that its population constitutes a nation, united by a common descent, a common language, and many forms of shared culture.

When the implied unity was absent, the nation-state often tried to create it. The creation of national systems of compulsory primary education is usually linked with the popularization of nationalist narratives. Even today, primary and secondary schools around the world often teach a mythologized version of national history. While some European nation-states emerged throughout the 19th century, the end of World War I meant the end of empires on the continent.

They all broke down into a number of smaller states. However, not until the tragedy of World War II and the post-war shifts of borders and population resettlement did many European states become more ethnically and culturally homogeneous and thus closer to the ideal nation-state.

Although the Peace of Westphalia did not end war in Europe, it established the precedent of peace reached by diplomatic congress and a new system of political order in Europe based upon the concept of co-existing sovereign states. The peace negotiations involved a total of delegations representing European powers. The treaties did not restore peace throughout Europe, but they did create a basis for national self-determination.

Initially a war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a more general conflict involving most of the great powers.

The war began when the newly elected Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples. The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to choose granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant Union.

These events caused widespread fears throughout northern and Central Europe, and triggered the Protestant Bohemians living in the dominion of Habsburg Austria to revolt against their nominal ruler, Ferdinand II. Frederick took the offer without the support of the union. The southern states, mainly Roman Catholic, were angered by this. Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the emperor.

The war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France—Habsburg rivalry for European political preeminence. Sweden, a major military power in the day, intervened in under the great general Gustavus Adolphus and started the full-scale great war on the continent. Spain, wishing to finally crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic, intervened under the pretext of helping their dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the coalition on the side of the Protestants to counter the Habsburgs.

The war altered the previous political order of European powers. The rise of Bourbon France, the curtailing of Habsburg ambition, and the ascendancy of Sweden as a great power created a new balance of power on the continent, with France emerging from the war strengthened and increasingly dominant in the latter part of the 17th century.

After the initial stages, Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces. However, under the leadership of the exiled William the Silent, the northern provinces continued their resistance.

They were eventually able to oust the Habsburg armies, and in they established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. The war continued in other areas, although the heartland of the republic was no longer threatened. The peace negotiations had no exact beginning and ending, because the participating total of delegations never met in a plenary session, but arrived between and and left between and According to the Peace of Westphalia, all parties would recognize the Peace of Augsburg of , in which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state the principle of cuius regio, eius religio.

Christians living in principalities where their denomination was not the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will. The delegates also recognized the exclusive sovereignty of each party over its lands, people, and agents abroad, and responsibility for the warlike acts of any of its citizens or agents.

Multiple territorial adjustments were also decided. Among the most important ones was the recognition of the independence of Switzerland from the Holy Roman Empire and the expansion of the territories of France, Sweden, and Brandenburg-Prussia later Prussia. The independence of the city of Bremen was clarified. Labberton, The Peace of Westphalia established the precedent of peace reached by diplomatic congress and a new system of political order in Europe based upon the concept of co-existing sovereign states.

Inter-state aggression was to be held in check by a balance of power. As European influence spread across the globe, these Westphalian principles, especially the concept of sovereign states, became central to international law and to the prevailing world order. However, the European colonization of Asia and Africa in the 19th century and two global wars in the 20th century dramatically undermined the principles established in Westphalia.

After the fall of the Soviet Union, power was seen as unipolar with the United States in absolute control, though nuclear proliferation and the rise of Japan, the European Union, the Middle East, China, and a resurgent Russia have begun to recreate a multipolar political environment.

Instead of a traditional balance of power, inter-state aggression may now be checked by the preponderance of power, a sharp contrast to the Westphalian principle.

Privacy Policy. Skip to main content. The Rise of Nation-States. Search for:. Nation-States and Sovereignty. Key Takeaways Key Points The concept of a nation-state is notoriously difficult to define. A working and imprecise definition is: a type of state that conjoins the political entity of a state to the cultural entity of a nation, from which it aims to derive its political legitimacy to rule and potentially its status as a sovereign state.

The most obvious impact of the nation-state is the creation of a uniform national culture through state policy. Its most demonstrative examples are national systems of compulsory primary education that usually popularize a common language and historical narratives. This theory of recognition was developed in the 19th century. Under it, a state was sovereign if another sovereign state recognized it as such.

European boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, Learning Objectives Explain the significance of the Peace of Westphalia on European politics and diplomacy. Initially a war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it developed into a conflict involving most of the great powers. The European colonization of Asia and Africa in the 19th century and two global wars in the 20th century dramatically undermined the principles established in Westphalia.

The doctrine is named after the Peace of Westphalia, signed in Licenses and Attributions. CC licensed content, Shared previously.

Nation-states and national states: Latin America in comparative perspective

Max Weber published a good deal as a German nationalist. He wrote about nation and state as a social scientist. Much of his political writing promoted German interests at home and abroad. As a scientist he wrote about ethnic community, national community, and state though rather less about nationalism and nation-state. The present chapter argues that there are problems in relating these political and scientific writings to each other and that his theorizing of the concept of nation is inadequate by his own standards. However, his basic sociological concepts suggest better ways of understanding nation and nationalism, and the chapter will sketch out such an approach.

Nationalism is a belief, creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation. Nationalism involves national identity, by contrast with the related construct of patriotism, which involves the social conditioning and personal behaviors that support a state's decisions and actions. From a psychological perspective, nationalism national attachment is distinct from other types of attachment, for example, attachment to a religion or a romantic partner. The desire for interpersonal attachment, or the need to belong, is one of the most fundamental human motivations. Like any attachment, nationalism can become dysfunctional if excessively applied. From a political or sociological perspective, there are two main perspectives on the origins and basis of nationalism.

Differences Between a Country, State, and Nation

In Nigeria and the Nation-State , former diplomat and Africa expert John Campbell provides a clear-eyed vision of Nigeria and why it matters. Nigeria is a case study of many of the challenges faced by other post-colonial, multi-ethnic countries. Nigeria is not a conventional nation-state, even if that is how other foreign ministries and international organizations perceive it. It is not quite a nation because Nigerians are not united by language, religion, culture, or a common national story.

The concept of a nation-state is notoriously difficult to define. The most obvious deviation from this largely ideal model is the presence of minorities, especially ethnic minorities, which ethnic and cultural nationalists exclude from the majority nation. The most illustrative historical examples of groups that have been specifically singled out as outsiders are the Roma and Jews in Europe.

Mostafa Rejai, Cynthia H. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account?

State, Nation and Nation-State: Clarifying Misused Terminology

Contention and Trust in Cities and States pp Cite as. What were the particularities of nation state making in Latin America?

 - Кто будет охранять охранников. Иными словами - кто будет охранять Агентство национальной безопасности, пока мы охраняем мир. Это было любимое изречение, которым часто пользовался Танкадо.

Когда их машины выдают полную чушь, они все равно на них молятся. Мидж повернулась к нему на своем стуле. - Это не смешно, Чед.

 - Оценки ущерба всюду приводятся разные.  - Она еще раз взглянула на текст.  - Элементы, ответственные… У Дэвида Беккера, находившегося в трех тысячах миль от комнаты оперативного управления, загорелись .

From Nation-State to State-Nation

 - Глаза ее смотрели сурово.  - Доктор. - Зюсс.  - Он пожал плечами. - Ладно, - нахмурилась Сьюзан.

Но тут же в голову пришли слова Стратмора: Найдите кольцо. Беккер в отчаянии плюхнулся на скамейку и задумался о том, что делать. Что же предпринять.

 - Над ними склонился Фонтейн.  - Посмотрим, что у них. Соши начала просматривать документ. Ей попалось описание нитрата мочевины, в десять раз более мощной взрывчатки, чем динамит.

2 Response
  1. QueremГіn A.

    PDF | The idea of nation-state is confused and confusing. It is important to distinguish between the national state and the nation-state in order.

  2. Marie L.

    While the distinction between nation- states and state-nations on this basis is relevant and useful, both sequences and formations are to be found in the West as.

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