Principles Of Plant Nutrition Mengel And Kirkby Pdf

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Principles of Plant Nutrition

Nutrients use efficiency of plants could be affected by the antagonistic or synergistic effects of two or more elements in the soil leading to decreased or increased yield.

Field experiments were conducted in and cropping seasons at the Landmark University Teaching and Research farm, Omu-Aran, Nigeria, to determine the interaction between zinc Zn and phosphate P fertilizers on growth, yield, nutrient elements and some heavy metals composition of groundnut grown on an Alfisol.

Treatments consisted of four levels of phosphorus 0, 40, 80 and kg P ha -1 and three levels of zinc 0, 4 and 8 kg Zn ha Laboratory analysis of some chemical constituents of groundnut seed was carried out to determine the nutrient and heavy metals composition. Results indicated that application of 8 kg Zn ha -1 and kg P ha -1 had a synergistic effect on the growth parameters and antagonistic effect on the yield, yield parameters, some nutrient elements and beneficial heavy metals.

Application of 8 kg Zn and 80 kg P ha -1 is therefore recommended on an Alfisol without necessarily increasing the concentration of non-beneficial heavy metals in groundnut seed.

Groundnut is an important food and cash crop in West Africa. One of the largest producers of groundnut is Nigeria. It is either grown for its nut, oil or its vegetative residue haulms.

The crop has several agronomic values which include drought tolerant and ability to produce some yield in soils that are too poor for cultivation of other leguminous crops like common beans Anchirinah et al.

Most of the cultivated areas in Africa are poor sandy soils using high rates of chemical fertilizers. P element is an essential macro-nutrient needed for crop growth and high yield. It is mainly supplied through chemical fertilizer application George and Richardson P fertilizer is also needed in many plant vital processes such as photosynthesis, root formation and nitrogen.

Studies have shown that majority of the world soils are deficient in zinc. Aboyeji et al. It is estimated that almost half of the soils in the world are deficient in zinc. Zn is known to be one of the eight essential micronutrients needed for plants growth and development. When the response of plants to one nutrient increases with an increase in the level of the other nutrient, the interaction is said to be positive and the nutrients are said to be synergistic. Conversely, when the response to one nutrient decreases with an increase in the level of the other nutrient, the interaction is said to be negative and the two nutrients are said to be antagonistic Gomez and Gomez P and Zn are both essential nutrients needed for plant growth, but their combined effect at a certain level could be antagonistic especially when the application of soil-P is higher.

Higher application of P may cause slower uptake of Zn by the plants or inadequate of Zn in the soil Mengel and Kirkby , this process results in yield decline in many crops.

Heavy metals have high atomic number and are toxic substances even at low concentrations Martinez and Tabatabai These elements are regarded toxic Wolnik et al. The major routes of heavy metal inputs to agricultural soils include atmospheric deposition, sewage sludge, animal manures, agrochemicals and inorganic fertilizers Nicholson et al. Losses occur through uptake in crops or livestock products, leaching and soil erosion. Phosphorus is an important element that interferes with zinc uptake, as zinc uptake by plants reduces by increasing phosphorus in soil.

High levels of phosphorus may decrease the availability of zinc or the onset of zinc deficiency associated with phosphorus fertilization may be due to plant physiological factors. One of the causes of the current stagnating yield levels is the deficiency or imbalance of nutrients resulting from nutrient antagonisms Lobell Zn and P fertilizers are both essential in crop production but the application of the two fertilizers may have antagonistic and synergistic effects at a particular rate.

The study was therefore conducted to determine the levels of interaction of Zn and P fertilizers on the performance, yield, some minerals and heavy metals composition of groundnut grown on an Alfisol of derived guinea savanna. On the basis of this objective, it was hypothesized that, the interaction of Zn and P fertilizers would have effect on the performance, minerals and heavy metal composition of groundnut.

Experiments were therefore carried out to validate this hypothesis; which level of combined or sole applications of Zn and P would improve performance, increase yield and mineral elements without necessarily increasing the heavy metals composition of the test crop grown on an Alfisol. An annual rainfall of mm mm is predominant, following a dry season between November and March.

Pre-cropping soil samples were randomly taken from each plot and bulked to obtain composite sample for laboratory analysis. The seed variety used for the experiment was Samaru 61 which requires between and days to mature and are more suited and commonly grown in the derived savanna of Nigeria. The total experimental area was ploughed once to a depth of about 20 cm, harrowed twice to give a fine tilth and made into ridges of 0. Thereafter the field layout was carried out to mark out the appropriate number of treatment plots.

Seeds were sown manually at inter and intra row spacing of 0. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied at the rate of 20 kg N ha -1 as basal application to all plots to facilitate vegetative growth. All fertilizer applications were done by side placement based on treatments. Metolachlor which is a pre-emergence herbicide suitable for groundnut was applied at the rate of 1. Harvesting was manually done at 24 weeks after sowing by carefully pulling and using hoe to dig up the groundnut from the soil.

The pods were separated from the biomass and measurements were taken on both parameters based on treatment. Representative seed samples were collected per treatment to determine the level of mineral elements and heavy metals in the seed. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine values for P, K, Ca, and Mg. Dry ashing of samples was carried out using the procedure as described by Chapman and Pratt while atomic absorption spectrophotometer as described by AOAC, was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Fe, Cr and Mn using the following calculation:.

Means for each data collected in and cropping seasons were computed after which it was subjected to statistical analysis of variance ANOVA using the SAS computer package version 9.

The pre-planting soil analysis is as shown in Table 1. The pH of the soil was strongly acidic, the N and Zn content were low, available P and exchangeable K were at moderate while the exchangeable Ca, Mg, organic carbon and organic matter were all adequate. The soil was high in sand with relatively low values in both silt and clay; hence the textural class Sandy loam. The main and interaction effect of Zn and P fertilizers on plant height and plant spread are shown in Table 2. At all weeks after sowing WAS , the effect of varying rates of Zn did not affect plant height and plant spread significantly.

Effect of Zn and P fertilizers on plant height and spread of groundnut based on the mean from and cropping seasons. Means in a column under any given treatment followed by the same letter s do not differ significantly at 0. Application of kg P ha -1 significantly increased plant height at 6 and 8 WAS though statistically similar with application of 80 kg P ha There was no significant interaction between Zn and P fertilizers on both plant height and plant spread. The effect of application of Zn and P fertilizers was not significant on total biomass.

Higher values for the parameters were observed at 8 kg Zn ha -1 while the least values were at the control. Effect of Zn and P fertilizers on the yield and yield parameters of groundnut based on the mean from and cropping seasons. Increasing rates of P fertilizer from 0 to 80 kg P ha -1 significantly increased the yield and yield parameters. Further increase in P fertilizer to kg P ha -1 reduced values for the parameters. The least value for yield and yield parameters were observed at the control.

Interaction was significant on the yield and yield parameters and the best combination for optimum performance of groundnut was 8 kg Zn ha -1 and 80 kg P ha Increasing rates of Zn from 0 kg Zn ha -1 to 8 kg Zn ha -1 significantly increased the availability of all the nutrient elements, except P where increasing levels of Zn resulted in reduced, but had statistically similar values. Effect of Zn and P fertilizers on the concentration of nutrient elements mg kg -1 in groundnut seed based on the mean from and cropping seasons.

Varying rates of phosphorus fertilizer resulted in varying nutrient concentration in groundnut seed. There was no significant effect of application of phosphorus fertilizer on K concentration of the seeds. Increasing rates of phosphorus fertilizer up to 80 kg P ha -1 significantly increased the seed concentration of P, Ca and Mg. Further increase to kg P ha -1 did not increase the values significantly. P and Zn interactions had significant effects on the concentration of all the nutrient elements and the best combination was 8 kg Zn ha -1 and 80 kg P ha -1 which was statistically similar to 8 kg Zn ha -1 and kg P ha There was no significant effect of the application of Zn on the concentration of Fe and Cu on groundnut seed.

Application of zinc fertilizer up to 8 kg Zn ha -1 significantly reduced values for Mn, Cd and Cr but increased the concentration of Zn. Concentration of Fe, Cu and Mn in groundnut seeds increased significantly with the application of kg P ha Significant interaction between Zn and P fertilizers was observed on all the heavy metals except Fe and Cu.

Constraints to groundnut production in Nigeria may be due to deficiency of macro and micronutrients and possibly due to nutrients interactions and or poor nutrient retention ability of the soil. One of the most important fertilizer management strategies towards improving crop response to application of fertilizer is to understand or identify synergisms and antagonisms of different types of nutrient elements.

Nutrient imbalance or interaction in crops is probably one of the most important factors affecting yields of annual crops Fageria et al. Application of varying rates of Zn and P on groundnut revealed that the two nutrients have effect on the vegetative growth plant height, plant spread , yield, yield parameters, nutrient concentration and heavy metals accumulation of groundnut.

Application of Zn increased plant height and spread though the effect was not significant on the parameters. Increase in the vegetative parameters may be due to that Zn encourages the vegetative growth and increased plant capacity for building metabolites.

It could also be as a result of auxin production by the plants which facilitated production of more plant cells. Similar findings were from Tomar et al. P is essentially required for healthy growth with efficient root system and profuse nodulation which in turn can affect the N 2 -fixation potential Kwari P is considered as a limiting factor in plant nutrition due to the deficiency of available soluble phosphate in the soil Uma Maheswar and Sathiyavani Application of P fertilizer at kg P ha -1 significantly increased plant height and spread though statistically similar with the application of 80 kg P ha The increase in the vegetative growth of groundnut resulting from the application of P fertilizer could be ascribed to the moderate level of available P in the soil which may not be able to sustain the crop to maturity.

It could also be as a result of the beneficial effects of phosphates in the process of photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and other vital physiological processes.

The non- or zero interaction between Zn and P on the vegetative parameters could be that the applied rates for the two nutrients were adequate for the vegetative growth of groundnut. Deficiency of soil Zn is common in many climatic regions, particularly in sandy soil where it causes yield decrease and low yield quality of groundnut. Zn functions in plants are activity related. Zn activates many plant enzymes such as auxin which assists in producing more cells and dry matter thus yield increase Devlin and Withan Significant increase in yield and yield parameters as a result of application of 8 kg Zn ha -1 could be ascribed to the improved vegetative growth which facilitated production of a greater number of nodules and in turn increased pod yield as a result of increased rate of photosynthesis and sufficient nutrient availability.

These results agree with those of Helpyati and Sumangala The increases in yield and its attributes may be due to the fact that phosphorus is known to help in the development of more extensive root system Kamara et al.

Application of P, Ca and B fertilizers increased nutrients availability to the crop during the growing season which leads to greater utilization of assimilates into the pods and ultimately increased number of filled pods and shelling percentage Kamara et al. In a similar experiment, El-Desouky et al. The result also indicated that zero application of phosphorus fertilizer resulted in the least values for yield and all the yield parameters.

This could be ascribed to reduction in biomass, poor root nodulation and development which may affect nitrogen fixation.

Plant nutrition

Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, plant metabolism and their external supply. In its absence the plant is unable to complete a normal life cycle, or that the element is part of some essential plant constituent or metabolite. This is in accordance with Justus von Liebig's law of the minimum. Plants must obtain the following mineral nutrients from their growing medium:- [2]. These elements stay beneath soil as salts , so plants absorb these elements as ions.


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Principles of Plant Nutrition Mengel, Kirkby

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It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This is the 5th edition of a well-established book Principles of Plant Nutrition which was first published in

Principles of plant nutrition. K Mengel, EA Kirby. That this text book is now in its fifth edition clearly shows the strength of its content and presentation, and its relevance to the scientific community, which should include all those interested in plants and their growth. There are 20 chapters.

Nutrients use efficiency of plants could be affected by the antagonistic or synergistic effects of two or more elements in the soil leading to decreased or increased yield. Field experiments were conducted in and cropping seasons at the Landmark University Teaching and Research farm, Omu-Aran, Nigeria, to determine the interaction between zinc Zn and phosphate P fertilizers on growth, yield, nutrient elements and some heavy metals composition of groundnut grown on an Alfisol. Treatments consisted of four levels of phosphorus 0, 40, 80 and kg P ha -1 and three levels of zinc 0, 4 and 8 kg Zn ha Laboratory analysis of some chemical constituents of groundnut seed was carried out to determine the nutrient and heavy metals composition. Results indicated that application of 8 kg Zn ha -1 and kg P ha -1 had a synergistic effect on the growth parameters and antagonistic effect on the yield, yield parameters, some nutrient elements and beneficial heavy metals.

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Many agricultural soils of the world are deficient in one or more of the essential nutrients needed to support healthy plants. Acidity, alkalinity, salinity, anthropogenic processes, and erosion can lead to soil degradation. Chemical fertilizers often have low use efficiency, meaning that only a portion of the applied nutrients is taken up by plants Adesemoye et al. Plants that efficiently absorb and use nutrients greatly enhance the overall efficiency of applied fertilizers, reducing cost of inputs and preventing loss of nutrients to ecosystems Baligar et al. Fertilizer use efficiency can be optimized by fertilizer management practices that apply nutrients at the right rate, time, and place in both conventional and organic farming.

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