Brief History Of Jammu And Kashmir Pdf

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The history of Kashmir is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of Central Asia , South Asia and East Asia. Historically, Kashmir referred to the Kashmir Valley. In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later in the ninth century, Shaivism arose.

The history of Kashmir is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of Central Asia , South Asia and East Asia. Historically, Kashmir referred to the Kashmir Valley. In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later in the ninth century, Shaivism arose. Islamization in Kashmir took place during 13th to 15th century and led to the eventual decline of the Kashmir Shaivism in Kashmir. However, the achievements of the previous civilizations were not lost.

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Those against this provision, Article , have argued that all three parts of the state—the Muslim-dominated Kashmir valley, the Hindu-majority Jammu, and Ladakh, which has considerable Buddhist presence—should not have laws independent of the Indian constitution. The Quit Kashmir movement against the maharaja is launched. August India gains independence from the British empire, Pakistan is created as a Muslim-majority country.

Indian home minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel works to convince the undecided princely states to join India; Maharaja Hari Singh signs a standstill agreement with Pakistan , effectively opting for status quo. He reaches out to prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Patel who agree to send troops on the condition that the maharaja signs an instrument of accession IoA in favour of India pdf , handing over control of defence, foreign affairs, and communication.

Hari Singh signs the IoA, Indian troops move in. The armed conflict continues. The conflict continues through Sheikh Abdullah named the prime minister. January The UN mediates a ceasefire between Indian and Pakistan—also known as the Karachi Agreement—allowing the two countries to retain control over territories held at the time.

No agreement on referendum yet. July Hari Singh abdicates in favour of his son Karan Singh. Sheikh Abdullah and three colleagues join the Indian constituent assembly to discuss provisions of Article under the Indian constitution that is still being drafted. This leads to a comprehensive Delhi Agreement pdf that defines the relationship of the state with the union. Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad takes his place. This leaves no possibility of a plebiscite.

May Titles of prime minister and sadr-i-riyasat officially changed to chief minister and governor, respectively. August to January War between India and Pakistan. Central rule declared just as outfits like JKLF gain strength. Kashmiri Pandits Hindu Brahmins flee their hometowns in Kashmir valley in the face of rising militancy. The central government imposes the Armed Forces Special Powers Act, giving armed forces unprecedented powers to counter armed militancy.

Several separatists, including Yasin Malik, arrested. All Parties Hurriyat Conference, an alliance of 26 social and political movements, is established in A large number of civilians, armed personnel, and militants die in incessant violent clashes.

India releases three militants in exchange for the flight and the passengers on board to be brought back safely to Delhi. December : Armed militants attack Indian parliament in New Delhi. November Terrorists affiliated to the Lashkar-e-Taiba attack various public places, including prominent luxury hotels, in the port city of Mumbai. The Indian human rights commission finds 2, unmarked graves near the LoC. April Mehbooba Mufti becomes chief minister after the death of Mufti Mohammad Sayeed, her father.

July : Burhan Wani, another young militant, killed in shootout with armed forces. Curfew imposed for several months. The army retaliates with surgical strikes across the LoC. Militants attack pilgrims on their way to the revered Hindu shrine of Amarnath. November Governor Satya Pal Malik dissolves legislative assembly. February A vehicle loaded with explosives crashes into an Indian paramilitary convoy, killing 40 personnel.

An Indian Air Force pilot captured by Pakistan and later released. Pilgrims to Amarnath asked to return. This is because a landmine with Pakistani markings has been found along the pilgrimage route. August 4: Prominent Kashmiri leaders, including former chief ministers Omar Abdullah and Mehbooba Mufti, placed under house arrest. Internet and mobile services curtailed , and section , which prevents a gathering of more than four people in public spaces, imposed.

Opposition parties protest in parliament; complete shutdown in Kashmir valley. By providing your email, you agree to the Quartz Privacy Policy. Skip to navigation Skip to content. These are some of our most ambitious editorial projects. By Manavi Kapur Culture and lifestyle reporter. October The legislative assembly in Srinagar is attacked.

December Central rule declared in the state. Sign me up. Update your browser for the best experience.

54. India/Jammu and Kashmir (1947-present)

Jammu and Kashmir , union territory of India until October 31, , a state , located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent in the vicinity of the Karakoram and westernmost Himalayan mountain ranges. The territory is part of the larger region of Kashmir , which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan , and China since the partition of the subcontinent in Legislation passed in August set the stage for downgrading Jammu and Kashmir from statehood to union territory status and splitting off a part of it, known as the Ladakh region, into a separate union territory. The change went into effect on October 31 of that year, though several court cases affecting its status remained pending. The information that follows describes the former state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the Ladakh region.

Kashmir has history of years, intermittently ruled by outsiders. The history of Kashmir is mainly divided into four periods:. Shah Mir ascended the throne under the name of Sultan Shamasud-din, and his dynasty ruled the state for years. Firishta records that he persecuted the Hindus and issued orders prohibiting the residence of any other than Muslims in Kashmir. He also ordered the breaking of all golden and silver images. During the period of Mughal rule from to , the people enjoyed peace and order.

History of Kashmir

These are the core obsessions that drive our newsroom—defining topics of seismic importance to the global economy. Our emails are made to shine in your inbox, with something fresh every morning, afternoon, and weekend. Those against this provision, Article , have argued that all three parts of the state—the Muslim-dominated Kashmir valley, the Hindu-majority Jammu, and Ladakh, which has considerable Buddhist presence—should not have laws independent of the Indian constitution.

This book presents documents on the five-month long negotiations which preceded its enactment on 17 October It explains the significance of the article, describes how it was eroded, and traces the Constitutional evolution of the State and its relationship with the Union of India thereafter. It covers the period from to

Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Jammu and Kashmir. The Indian States in India.

Jammu and Kashmir (princely state)

After Pashtun tribesmen Muslims from neighboring Waziristan, Pakistan invaded Jammu and Kashmir beginning on October 20, , Maharaja Hari Singh requested military assistance from the government of India. Pakistani government troops provide support for the Pashtun tribesment beginning on October 23,

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Поправив очки в железной оправе, человек посмотрел вслед удаляющемуся автобусу. Дэвид Беккер исчез, но это ненадолго. Из всех севильских автобусов мистер Беккер выбрал пользующийся дурной славой 27-й маршрут. Автобус номер 27 следует к хорошо известной конечной остановке. ГЛАВА 46 Фил Чатрукьян швырнул трубку на рычаг.

Сидя в одиночестве и собираясь с мыслями, Беккер посмотрел на кольцо на своем пальце. Зрение его несколько прояснилось, и ему удалось разобрать буквы. Как он и подозревал, надпись была сделана не по-английски. Беккер долго вглядывался в текст и хмурил брови. И ради этого стоило убивать.

Потом, всего через несколько секунд, он должен был включить основные генераторы, и сразу же восстановились бы все функции дверных электронных замков, заработали фреоновые охладители и ТРАНСТЕКСТ оказался бы в полной безопасности. Но, приближаясь к рубильнику, Стратмор понял, что ему необходимо преодолеть еще одно препятствие - тело Чатрукьяна на ребрах охлаждения генератора. Вырубить электропитание и снова его включить значило лишь вызвать повторное замыкание. Труп надо передвинуть. Стратмор медленно приближался к застывшему в гротескной лозе телу, не сводя с него глаз. Он схватил убитого за запястье; кожа была похожа на обгоревший пенопласт, тело полностью обезвожено.

A timeline of key events that shaped the unique identity of Kashmir within India

Но он несколько опоздал. Сьюзан хотела что-то сказать, но ее опередил Джабба: - Значит, Танкадо придумал шифр-убийцу.  - Он перевел взгляд на экран. Все повернулись вслед за. - Шифр-убийца? - переспросил Бринкерхофф.

 Элементы! - воскликнул.  - Мы говорим о математике, а не об истории. Головы повернулись к спутниковому экрану.

ТРАНСТЕКСТ еще никогда не сталкивался с шифром, который не мог бы взломать менее чем за один час. Обычно же открытый текст поступал на принтер Стратмора за считанные минуты. Она взглянула на скоростное печатное устройство позади письменного стола шефа. В нем ничего не. - Сьюзан, - тихо сказал Стратмор, - с этим сначала будет трудно свыкнуться, но все же послушай меня хоть минутку.

Здесь она снова замерла. Все выглядело совсем не так, как несколько минут. ТРАНСТЕКСТ выступал серым силуэтом в слабом сумеречном свете, проникавшем сквозь купол потолка.

Jammu and Kashmir

ГЛАВА 69 - Эй, мистер. Беккер, шедший по залу в направлении выстроившихся в ряд платных телефонов, остановился и оглянулся. К нему приближалась девушка, с которой он столкнулся в туалетной комнате.

1 Response
  1. Denisse C.

    At the time of the partition of India and the political integration of India , Hari Singh , the ruler of the state, delayed making a decision about the future of his state.

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