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His reign ushered in the golden age of Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan commissioned many monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal in Agra , in which is entombed his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
In the end, Sayyid Muhammad Qanauji and Kazi Qurban moved the body of Shah Jahan out of the prison, washed it and placed it in a coffin made out of sandalwood.
There is too much said and written about the biographies of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal already. How did Mumtaz Mahal die? Rajab is the 7th month of the Islamic calendar.
shah jahan pdf
She was the daughter of Abu'l-Hasan Asaf Khan , a wealthy Persian noble who held high office in the Mughal Empire, and the niece of Empress Nur Jahan , the chief wife of Emperor Jahangir and the power behind the emperor. Mumtaz Mahal died in in Burhanpur , Deccan present-day Madhya Pradesh , during the birth of her fourteenth child, a daughter named Gauhar Ara Begum.
As with other Mughal royal ladies, there are no contemporary likenesses that are accepted as of her, but numerous imagined portraits were created from the 19th century onwards. His family had come to India impoverished in , when his father Mirza Ghias Beg popularly known by his title of I'timad-ud-Daulah ,  was taken into the service of Emperor Akbar in Agra.
Mumtaz was remarkable in the field of learning and was a talented and cultured lady. Early in adolescence, she attracted the attention of important nobles of the realm.
Jahangir must have heard about her, since he readily consented to Shah Jahan's engagement with her. Mumtaz Mahal was betrothed to Shah Jahan around 30 January ,  when she was 14 years old at the time and he was They were, however, married five years after the year of their betrothal on 30 April in Agra.
By all accounts, Shah Jahan was so taken with Mumtaz that he showed little interest in exercising his polygamous rights with his two other wives, other than dutifully siring a child with each. The intimacy, deep affection, attention and favour which Shah Jahan had for Mumtaz exceeded what he felt for his other wives. Mumtaz had a loving marriage with Shah Jahan. Even during her lifetime, poets would extol her beauty, grace, and compassion. Despite her frequent pregnancies, Mumtaz travelled with Shah Jahan's entourage throughout his earlier military campaigns and the subsequent rebellion against his father.
She was his constant companion and trusted confidant, leading court historians to go to unheard lengths to document the intimate and erotic relationship the couple enjoyed. In their nineteen years of marriage, they had fourteen children together eight sons and six daughters ,  seven of whom died at birth or at a very young age.
Upon his accession to the throne in ,  Shah Jahan designated Mumtaz as his chief empress with the title of 'Malika-i-Jahan' "Queen of the World"  and 'Malika-uz-Zamani' "Queen of the Age"  and mallikai-hindustan "Queen of the hindustan".
It was decorated with pure gold and precious stones and had rose-water fountains of its own. Each wife of the Mughal emperor was given a regular monthly allowance for her gastos housekeeping or travelling expenses ; the highest such allowance on record is the one million rupees per year given to Mumtaz Mahal by Shah Jahan.
Shah Jahan consulted Mumtaz in both private matters and the affairs of the state, and she served as his close confidant and trusted adviser. At her intercession, he forgave enemies or commuted death sentences. A great influence on him, often intervening on behalf of the poor and destitute, she also enjoyed watching elephant and combat fights [ clarification needed ] performed for the court.
Mumtaz also patronized a number of poets, scholars and other talented persons. A noted Sanskrit poet, Vansidhara Mishra, was the Empress's favourite.
It is the only architectural foundation which can be connected to her patronage. Mumtaz Mahal died from postpartum hemorrhage in Burhanpur on 17 June  while giving birth to her fourteenth child, after a prolonged labor of approximately 30 hours.
Her body was temporarily buried at Burhanpur in a walled pleasure garden known as Zainabad originally constructed by Shah Jahan's uncle Daniyal on the bank of the Tapti River. In the immediate aftermath of his bereavement, the emperor was reportedly inconsolable.
Mumtaz Mahal's personal fortune valued at ten million rupees was divided by Shah Jahan between Jahanara Begum, who received half and the rest of her surviving children. As a result, her body was disinterred in December and transported in a golden casket escorted by her son Shah Shuja and the deceased empress's head lady-in-waiting back to Agra. Shah Jahan stayed behind in Burhanpur to conclude the military campaign that had originally brought him to the region.
While there, he began planning the design and construction of a suitable mausoleum and funerary garden in Agra for his wife. It was a task that would take 22 years to complete: the Taj Mahal.
It is seen as an embodiment of undying love and marital devotion. English poet Sir Edwin Arnold describes it as "Not a piece of architecture, as other buildings are, but the proud passion of an emperor's love wrought in living stones.
Since it is unlikely that they came up with the name, it is suggested that they might have picked it up from the locals of Agra who called the Empress 'Taj Mahal' and thought the tomb was named after her and the name began to be used interchangeably. However, there is no firm evidence to suggest this.
Shah Jahan had not intended to entomb another person in the Taj Mahal;  however, Aurangzeb had Shah Jahan buried next to the tomb of Mumtaz Mahal rather than build a separate tomb for his father.
A crater was named in her honour on asteroid Eros , along with another one after her husband. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chief consort of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. For other uses, see Mumtaz Mahal disambiguation. Taj Mahal , Agra. Children of Mumtaz Mahal. Jahanara became the First Lady Padshah Begum of the Mughal Empire after her mother's death, despite the fact that her father had three other consorts.
She died unmarried. He was favoured as a successor by his father, Shah Jahan, and his elder sister, Princess Jahanara Begum, but was defeated and later killed by his younger brother, Prince Muhiuddin later the Emperor Aurangzeb , in a bitter struggle for the imperial throne. He married and had issue. Shah Shuja 23 June — 7 February He survived in the war of succession. Aurangzeb Mughal emperor 3 November — 3 March Succeeded his father as the sixth Mughal emperor after emerging victorious in the war of succession that took place after Shah Jahan's illness in Lutf Allah 4 November — 13 May  Died at the age of one and a half years.
Husn Ara Begum 23 April —  Died in infancy. Ancestors of Mumtaz Mahal 8. Khwaja Muhammad Sharif 4. I'timad-ud-Daulah 9. Unnamed wife daughter of 12  2. Abu'l-Hasan Asaf Khan Ala-ud-Daula Aqa Mulla son of 12  5. Asmat Begam 1. Mumtaz Mahal Aqa Mulla Dawatdar Qazwini  6.
Diwanji Begum. Islamic Culture Board: Retrieved 13 April Van Book 2, South Asia. University of Chicago Press. Taj Mahal. London: Profile Books. Thackeray; John E. Findling, eds. Events that formed the modern world: from the European Renaissance through the War on Terror. London: I. Mughal empire Transferred to digital print. Cambridge, Eng. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. Case Reports in Women's Health. Retrieved 21 December Archived from the original on 26 December Retrieved 1 September The Times of India.
Retrieved 30 June New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. Notable Mughal and Hindu women in the 16th and 17th centuries A. New Delhi: Inter-India Publ. India: Sage Publications. Mumtaz Mahal was equally adept in Persian and Arabic as well as in writing poetry, besides being a patron of the learned and scholars. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Nur Jahan and Her Family. Dandewal Publishing House.
Kolkata: K. The complete Taj Mahal and the riverfront gardens of Agra. Bookwise India Pvt. The Life and Times of Noor Jahan. Lahore: Caravan Book House. Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Indian ed.
Love Story Of Mumtaz And Shah Jahan
Mumtaz Mahal was born as Arjumand Banu into Persian nobility. She was just 19 years old when she was married to Prince Khurram on 10 May He would go on to become Emperor Shah Jahan. They were actually betrothed five years before but had to wait for a date selected by court astrologers as most conducive to a happy marriage. The love was apparently mutual. She travelled with him of the empire, and she even held the Imperial Seal, the Muhr Uzah, proving his great trust in her. She supposedly had no political aspirations.
Shah Jahan Mumtaz Mahal History. Mumtaz Mahal had a loving marriage with Emperor Shah Jahan. It was the third marriage to Shah Jahan. Even though Shahjahan spent most of his time with the third wife and showed little interest in first two wives. After Mumtaz died in , the grieving emperor resolved to create a fitting monument. Fenixtrip Odyssey , views.
She was the daughter of Abu'l-Hasan Asaf Khan , a wealthy Persian noble who held high office in the Mughal Empire, and the niece of Empress Nur Jahan , the chief wife of Emperor Jahangir and the power behind the emperor. Mumtaz Mahal died in in Burhanpur , Deccan present-day Madhya Pradesh , during the birth of her fourteenth child, a daughter named Gauhar Ara Begum. As with other Mughal royal ladies, there are no contemporary likenesses that are accepted as of her, but numerous imagined portraits were created from the 19th century onwards. His family had come to India impoverished in , when his father Mirza Ghias Beg popularly known by his title of I'timad-ud-Daulah ,  was taken into the service of Emperor Akbar in Agra. Mumtaz was remarkable in the field of learning and was a talented and cultured lady.
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Shah Jahan was born in AD. The name "Khurram" was chosen for the young prince by his grandfather, Emperor Akbar, with whom the young prince shared a close relationship. Macmillan, , Touched by their warm hospitality towards him, Shah Jahan decided to erect one of the most beautiful mosques in the world right there in Thatta. In , his sixth regnal year, Shah Jahan began to impose Sharia provisions against construction or repair of churches and temples and subsequently ordered the demolitions of newly built Hindu temples.
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Когда она вошла, глаза немца чуть не вывалились из орбит. На ней была черная ночная рубашка; загорелая, орехового оттенка кожа светилась в мягком свете ночника, соски призывно выделялись под тонкой прозрачной тканью. - Komm doch hierher, - сказал немец сдавленным голосом, сбрасывая с себя пижаму и поворачиваясь на спину. Росио через силу улыбнулась и подошла к постели. Но, посмотрев на распростертую на простынях громадную тушу, почувствовала облегчение. То, что она увидела пониже его живота, оказалось совсем крошечным. Немец схватил ее и нетерпеливо стянул с нее рубашку.
Д-дэвид… - Сьюзан не знала, что за спиной у нее собралось тридцать семь человек. - Ты уже задавал мне этот вопрос, помнишь. Пять месяцев. Я сказала. - Я знаю.
Я не могу, - повторила. - Я не могу выйти за тебя замуж. - Она отвернулась.
Появилась вторая пара, с детьми, и шумно приветствовала соседей. Они болтали, смеялись и троекратно целовали друг друга в щеки. Затем подошла еще одна группа, и жертва окончательно исчезла из поля зрения Халохота. Кипя от злости, тот нырнул в стремительно уплотняющуюся толпу. Он должен настичь Дэвида Беккера.
Потому что ТРАНСТЕКСТ никак не мог вскрыть этот файл. Он был зашифрован с помощью некоего нового алгоритма, с которым фильтры еще не сталкивались. Джаббе потребовалось почти шесть часов, чтобы их настроить. Бринкерхофф выглядел растерянным. - Стратмор был вне .
Сотню баксов. Беккер нахмурился. - У меня только песеты.
Сьюзан закрыла дверь и подошла ближе. Голоса заглушал шум генераторов. Казалось, говорившие находились этажом ниже.
У нас в шифровалке человек взят в заложники. Быстро пришлите сюда людей. Да, да, прямо. К тому же у нас вышел из строя генератор. Я требую направить сюда всю энергию из внешних источников.
Он смотрел на нее с недоумением. - Доктор, - повторила. - Скажи первое, что придет в голову. - Ассоциативный ряд? - по-прежнему недоумевал Дэвид.
Однако считать ему не хотелось. По профессиональной привычке поправив съехавший набок узел галстука, он повернулся к писсуару. Он подумал, дома ли Сьюзан. Куда она могла уйти.
ТРАНСТЕКСТ заклинило. Фонтейн повернулся к окну. - Господи Исусе. Раздался телефонный звонок. Директор резко обернулся.
Сьюзан посмотрела на него и едва не рассмеялась. Невозможно. Что это должно означать. Такого понятия, как шифр, не поддающийся взлому, не существует: на некоторые из них требуется больше времени, но любой шифр можно вскрыть. Есть математическая гарантия, что рано или поздно ТРАНСТЕКСТ отыщет нужный пароль.
Это цена, которую приходится платить за известность. - Действительно. - Клушар вздохнул с видом мученика, вынужденного терпеть всякий сброд.
- Да тут несколько тысяч долларов. - Я действую по инструкции, сэр.