File Name: parts of newspaper and its definition .zip
Jump to content. A newspaper is a serial publication which contains news on current events of special or general interest. The individual parts are listed chronologically or numerically and appear frequently, usually at least once a week but sometimes fortnightly or monthly. They may include supplements such as colour magazines, or other inserts for special features or events. With the advent of digital publishing, digital newspapers are being produced, and are increasingly popular while readership of print newspapers is generally in decline .
Editorial: Definition, Importance and Types
The characteristics of newspapers as cultural power: reinterpretations of journalism theory proposed by Otto Groth. Ponta Grossa — PR, Brasil. Journalism, as a cultural product resulting from social needs, is the subject of systematic and complex exposition by Otto Groth. The purpose of this text is to analyze the links that the author establishes between the characteristics of journalism and culture, understanding the newspaper as a specialized materialization of senses present in society.
Al revisar los textos que estudian el trabajo de Groth, identificamos la ausencia de reflexiones sobre el marco neo-kantiano que estructura las proposiciones del autor. Over his more-thanyear career, Otto Groth has developed a vast number of works explaining the history and nature of journalism. The production of articles and reflections about Groth in Brazil increased due to an increase in the number of graduate courses in journalism and in specific lines of research in Communication Programs.
Even so, we believe our task is a valid one as we are conducting a theoretical analysis. We examine the connections the author establishes with the characteristics of journalism and the culture of a particular community, understanding the newspaper as a specialized representation of meanings present in society.
The first ones are more empirical studies, in which the concepts of periodicity, universality, actuality and publicity are presented in order to understand how they may apply to journalistic products from the past or the present , especially those made from new digital technologies. The third set of characteristics is a departure from the first two interpretations.
However, we do not identify explorations within them about the connections between the structuring concepts of science proposed by Groth and the characteristics of journalistic science. What we find with Groth is a proposal with Weberian influences, one that must therefore be understood as belonging to the Neo-Kantian tradition of formulating the Sciences of the Spirit or of the Sciences of Culture.
It should be noted that Weber is also one of the authors who discusses the Kantian theses for Human Sciences Neo-Kantian. When we study the excerpt which Groth describes journalistic science as a science of the spirit or culture, he is making a reference to Dilthey. Dilthey ; argues that the sciences of the spirit must be understood separately from the natural or physical sciences. This distinction is made through the object and the method. It is an intimate structure of life, of psychology, which presents itself as a unit with a systematicity that shows itself externally perceptions, images, sensations.
This structure is constituted as a unit by resisting externalities, and producing distinctions, identifications, associations and separations of itself. This is different from the natural sciences which explain outer laws without contemplating the structure and manifestation of meaning. Unlike Hegel, who defines the objective spirit as a stage of development of the universal speculative, metaphysical spirit, Dilthey , p. There is a hierarchy of understanding, ranging from the most indeterminate humanity in general to the more determined restricted, individual actions.
In addition, individual actions result from the objective spirit, and understanding the structure of the complex individual requires understanding this objective spirit. Which brings us to Groth , p. Newspapers and magazines are works of culture.
Culture is understood here as the set of human intellectual creations that continually grow and change. It is the interdependence in which the immaterial world meets and differentiates itself from the causality of nature by the fact that this interdependence leads to values and purposes according to the structure of the mind. In fact, not occasionally, not here and there, but it is precisely in the structure of the intellect to generate values and to realize ends in their reciprocal influence on the basis of understanding.
Groth , p. He seeks to recognize journalism as an autonomous science by recognizing the specificity of its object and method.
If we start from the external similarities of objects in the first provisional syntheses, this teleological connection is not determinative, but is a sign of the whole of the meaning, of the similarity of the purposes to which the objects serve, and of the internal uniformity determined by this similarity. These objectives are already sought out by other sciences, and can or should be, and the results to be obtained only of secondary interest to the Science of Newspapers [ It is within the essential that its own object and method lay, it substantiates its system.
In this respect, the criticism around Groth, that his theory is valid only for printed newspapers, lacks foundation and shows an unfamiliarity of his conceptual matrix. However, Groth also distances himself from Dilthey, mainly when it comes to designing the research method in the sciences of culture.
This is where the author seeks to advance the Dilthyean division of the sciences of the spirit and natural sciences. Saying there is a foundation of object and method in the sciences of culture in the face of the natural sciences, and then seeking points of connection between them, is very common among Neo-Kantian authors.
Like Weber, Groth states that the method of the sciences of culture is to understand, but the researcher must work with causalities. Therefore, for Groth, Journalistic Science must understand the causalities that are external and pertinent to it in order to understand the regularities of meaning.
This is clearly manifested in several passages, such as those in which he establishes the classifications of sciences based on Wildeband, Rickert, or Husserl.
We understand, according to previously outlined reasoning, that characteristics can only be understood as they relate to the interiority of the work, to the meaning. Groth explains that characteristics are not the meaning; they are parts of it, a decomposition of all that is systematized and objectified in life, but if isolated, they lose their reason for being in the meaning.
The ideal type is a category Weber constructed to allow one to approach reality and rationally recognize elements that at first are disconnected, but recurrent. The four characteristics are periodicity, universality, actuality and publicity.
They are not justifiable elements of newspaper products, but of the purposes of society and history. Groth proposes an inversion of reasoning because the characteristics are not a catalogue for classifying the reality of newspapers or their products, but for serving to understand purposes of the community for which the newspaper is a product or crystallization of. The characteristics of newspapers are responses to social needs, and as responses they need to be understood because paper, byte, image, and sound are not journalism, they are mediums that only acquire journalistic meaning when manifested within the purposes which the newspaper independent of the media is inserted.
These purposes of culture, of objectified spirit, are historic and vary from region to region. Journalism tends to respond to each location according to the resources and needs of its community. This means that periodicity, universality, actuality and publicity are analytical categories of ideal type that help to understand the journalistic characteristics of a given community or society which take shape in products newspaper, radio, television news.
Groth argues that periodicity is the most immediate characteristic of newspapers as it establishes the shape of the public rhythm materialized in the systematic production of information. Universality and actuality are characteristics that crystallize in the content of newspapers. The first characteristic for studying newspapers is periodicity.
This category is focused on its form, without observing the content that the newspaper produces. The personality of a newspaper is established by the continuity of its periodic published material. Periods have a space and time relationship. Periodic feedback is a quality every newspaper should have. Periodicity is a relation with the subject, with the culture; it is linked to the needs and predicts regularity GROTH, The frequency of the newspaper is established through the modern subject, which became punctual under the pressure of capitalist competition.
When dealing with technical possibilities and regular reception, the author points to publicity as one of the pillars that holds up periodicity.
In order to be periodical, a newspaper needs to circulate regularly to its readers. Fidalgo points to periodicity as a relation between fact event and its publicity, amplifying the meaning of this characteristic beyond print. This is because the very production of events systematic or unexpected demarcates and interferes in the rhythm of the public.
Newspapers and their organization and systematicity, then, begin to interfere publicly, as a product of political intent which shapes opinions that circulate periodically. Lastly, newspapers become systematic and begin to respond to the genre, to the public meaning, with institutionality and universality, conforming to more culture-integrated periods. In formulating his concept, Groth calls the newspaper a complete idea, formed by an immaterial reality that never becomes visible.
For example, it materializes in numbers or copies. In terms of publishing copies, he presents one of the requirements of periodicity: providing published material in each space of time, according to the reality in which it is inserted. However, as we previously mentioned, newspapers are immaterial and unique, and at the same time it is this unity that results in continuity. By selecting the subjects that compose a copy, Groth exposes the need to understand universality and points out that actuality is placed inside periodicity.
The existence of newspapers, consequently, is determined by universality and its issues are observed in the content of newspapers. To formulate the concept of universality, Groth goes back to the debate on the science of culture to show that human beings are inserted into an objective world. The sharing of the physical and social world of human beings, interacting with the world, formulating opinions and positions occurs in many ways.
The objective world, therefore, is a relational concept. The concept of universality is associated with objective unattainable reality - an ideal type. The need to be situated in time and space, inserted into the social world and culture means newspapers are a result of the connection between human beings and the social world.
Therefore, in order to situate modern man, newspapers must be universal. Phenomenologically speaking, connections are established in each individual for each relationship. This is what newspapers are expected to do, to provide the necessary insights for strengthening and creating bonds with the community for which it reports. In characterizing universality as an ideal type, Groth is not saying there are no challenges in providing quality newspaper.
He reinforces that there are difficulties in presenting content based on the culture which the newspaper belongs to. Observing the content of newspapers, Groth emphasizes that in order for newspapers to be relevant to the community in which they are inserted, they need to deal with issues on a broader level. The universal nature of newspapers lies precisely in their capacity to meet the needs of readers both in time and space. Lastly, it is important to understand that each characteristic makes sense when it is associated with the others.
The debate about the value of actuality in journalism lies within the ideal types materialized by Groth It is a that quality newspapers have, a concept of time, of content, and expresses an amount of time. For Groth, actuality is connected with the immediate present. Although their definitions are related, Groth makes sure to not confuse actuality with newness.
Newness is also an element of the present, but it is not the only one. Newness, on the other hand, is not exactly a temporal concept, but only means that the subject did not know about it.
Everything that the subject did not know and comes to know is new. It is, therefore, a relationship of quality between the cognizant subject and the known object. The present works with the possibilities of raising awareness of the present, past and future. The temporality of the present may be shorter or longer. It is about recognizing that the subject already knows the past, however, it is the present which is presented by the newspaper.
There is an observable emphasis in the present on understanding what actuality is. The time that elapses between the occurrence of the fact and its publication should be as close to zero as possible. The concept of actuality can also relate speed with revelation. Groth also shows that actuality is guided by the cultural characteristics in which the newspaper is inserted.
Writing a Newspaper Article
You will also find opinion pieces, like editorials and book and movie reviews. But this lesson deals strictly with news and feature articles. It is important to remember that both news and features demand the same level of research and reporting. Read examples of news and feature articles from the Scholastic Kids Press Corps. Read them all, then write your own articles modeled after them.
Structure of a News Report
The characteristics of newspapers as cultural power: reinterpretations of journalism theory proposed by Otto Groth. Ponta Grossa — PR, Brasil. Journalism, as a cultural product resulting from social needs, is the subject of systematic and complex exposition by Otto Groth.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business, sports and art, and often include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, obituaries , birth notices, crosswords , editorial cartoons , comic strips , and advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales , and advertising revenue. The journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often metonymically called newspapers.
Many people become interested in reading the newspaper as young adults. But younger students may be required to read the newspaper to search for current events or to research sources.
It is a section in newspaper or magazines in which the writers or editors share their opinion on ongoing topics. It is believed to be a brief essay on current issues; the writers share their opinion in regards to the publishing house which is seen as the opinion of the entire publishing house. If an article is written by someone else who belongs to the outsiders, then the disclaimer is shared.
Душераздирающий крик, раздавшийся из вентиляционной шахты, все еще звучал в ее ушах.
У нас ничего такого не случалось. - Вот. - Она едва заметно подмигнула.